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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

quadri-

quadri-   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
273 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...division of the medieval curriculum, consisting of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music). Quadru- is the usual form for words in which the second element begins with a -p- , as in quadruped (= a four-legged animal), quadruple (= to multiply by four), and quadruplet (= one of four children born at one birth). The two words in which quadru - precedes a word without a -p- are rare: quadrumanous (= four-handed) and quadrumvirate (= a group of four men united in some way). Although Eric Partridge said that quadra- is “always wrong” ( U&A ...

Standard English

Standard English   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
924 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as can't , for which /kant/ is standard and /kaynt/ is nonstandard). Throughout the 20th century, commentators noted (sometimes in strong terms) the social disapproval that attaches to nonstandard English. Mostly this is put in negative terms. If you don't speak Standard English, you’re at a social and professional disadvantage—e.g.: • “The intelligent people of America use reasonably pure English. If the speaker falls below this level he simply disgusts.” John P. Altgeld , Oratory: Its Requirements and Its Rewards 9 ( 1901 ). • “Anyone who cannot...

Casualisms

Casualisms   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the main word to denote the disease. Influenza is now considered a hyperformal word; flu has become the ordinary word (no longer a true casualism). Butt presents a different story. In reference to a person's posterior, it was considered rude, even slightly profane, in the mid-20th century. By the 1990s, when the baby boomers had come of age and had children of their own, many were shocked to find that PE teachers were having their children do “butt-lifts” (so called). A dictionary published in 2000 has a label that reads (quite accurately): “potentially...

Comparatives and Superlatives

Comparatives and Superlatives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
769 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... and or the disjunctive or in phrases such as the greater of A [ and ? or ?] B . Logic would seem to demand and to include all the options in the comparison before one is singled out as being the lesser , biggest , oldest , latter , etc. But in fact, since the early 20th century or has been about ten times as common in print as and with this type of phrasing. F. Absolute Adjectives. See adjectives (b)...

Synesis

Synesis   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
784 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in sense—e.g.: “ Three-fourths is a smaller quantity than we had expected.”/ “ Two pounds of shrimp is all I need.” If these constructions are grammatically safe, similar constructions involving collective nouns are somewhat more precarious. The rule consistently announced in 20th-century grammars is as follows: “Collective nouns take sometimes a singular and sometimes a plural verb. When the persons or things denoted are thought of as individuals, the plural should be used. When the collection is regarded as a unit, the singular should be used.” George...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...pronunciations (as they’re shown throughout this book) < ribald is pronounced / rib -әld/> ; (3) to separate the numerator and the denominator in a fraction <19/20> ; (4) in Internet addresses < http://www.oed.com >; and (5) in informal jottings, to separate the elements in a date <11/17/98> . R. Bibliography. For books on punctuation, see the Select Bibliography at the end of this book (p. 1049...

Plurals

Plurals   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,782 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...especially by treating words in the first category as if they belonged in the second—e.g.: • “[It seems] a small enough price to pay, though, for the joy of watching donkies [read donkeys ] year-round.” Rebecca Jones , “Kicking Up Their Heels,” Rocky Mountain News (Denver), 20 Jan. 1996 , at D2. • “Spurred on by this warning, they all continue with their mortal journies [read journeys ] by connecting in ways that will, in the case of death, make their last moments worthwhile.” Mary Houlihan-Skilton , “‘Fat Tuesday’ Needs More Louisiana Magic,” ...

Sexism

Sexism   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,728 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for most men, it is true that he who knows but cannot express what he knows might as well be ignorant.” That sentence opens Chapter 1 of Henry Weihofen 's Legal Writing Style (2d ed. 1980 )—a sentence that, ironically, is flanked by warnings against sexist language (pp. vii, 19–20). If Weihofen were writing today, no doubt he would express himself in neutral language. Throughout the English-speaking world, writers’ awareness of sexism rose most markedly during the 1980s. In September 1984 , the Commonwealth Attorney-General's Department in Canberra,...

Black Hander

Black Hander ([Hist.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
127 words

...mainly of Sicilians active in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The name was also used for a secret society which aimed at the unification of the southern Slavs at the beginning of the 20th century. > Someone who behaves in a secretive, suspicious manner He became the Black Hander once more. He looked this way and he looked that. He peeped hither and peered thither. Then he lowered his voice to such a whisper that I couldn't hear a damn word. P. G. Wodehouse Laughing Gas ...

prefix

prefix   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
134 words

...are primarily semantic in their effect, changing the meaning of the base. Common prefixes include: counter -productive (M20) de frost (L19) dis connect (L18) fore warn (ME) hyper active (M19) inter national (L18) minis kirt (M20) mal function (E20) non -event (M20) re build (L15) sub zero (M20) under nourished (E20) un natural (LME) ( v. ) Place before a word or base, especially so as to form a new word. • prefixation . 1991 P. H. MATTHEWS Processes of affixation may then be divided into prefixation , suffixation or infixation …In English the...

Praeteritio

Praeteritio   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
121 words

...), called by Puttenham ( The Arte of English Poesie , 1589 , p. 232) “the Passager,” is a seemingly hurried reference to material under the pretense of sparing the listener tedious details. This reluctance can be motivated by the speaker's wish to pass quickly over inconvenient circumstances of his case, as when in Tristram Shandy ( 1760–1767 ), Sterne's narrator drops several subjects and playfully leaves a character “to recover, and get home from Marseilles as he can” (6.20). Praeteritio is a strategy of ironic dissimulation, disingenuously...

abbreviation

abbreviation   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
302 words

...word: ID (identity or identification card) TB (tuberculosis) 2. A word (sometimes called a clipping ) standing for the whole, retaining at least one syllable of the original word. ad (advertisement) (M19) demo (demonstration) (M20) flu (influenza) (M19) pub (public house) (M19) phone (telephone) (L19) sitcom (situation comedy) (M20) Clippings vary in their level of formality; mike (microphone) and wellies (wellington boots) are at the informal end of the scale. Other abbreviations are acceptable in formal contexts, e.g. bus (omnibus), maths (US math...

Identification

Identification   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,881 words

...in beings that by nature respond to symbols ” ( RM , p. 43; italics Burke's). As Burke reasoned, “A is not identical with his colleague, B. But insofar as their interests are joined, A is identified with B. Or he may identify himself with B even when their interests are not joined, if he assumes that they are, or is persuaded to believe so” ( RM , p. 20). Because of estrangement, people yearn to belong to one another and to institutions. “ ‘Belonging’ in this sense is rhetoric” ( RM , p. 28). People “belong” to one another through identification....

Secular piety

Secular piety   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,076 words

...Motives . Burke explains that “A is not identical with his colleague, B. But insofar as their interests are joined, A is identified with B. Or he may identify himself with B even when their interests are not joined, if he assumes that they are, or is persuaded to believe so” (p. 20). Just as decorum in traditional rhetoric blends contradictions, so Burke's identification allows people, by assuming that interests are joined, to stress unity in what might otherwise be perceived as a divisive situation or idea. Through secular piety, people can frame their...

Ēthos

Ēthos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
10,506 words

...refers ēthos to the “haunts” or “arena in which people and animals move” (p. 99). Given its original connection with places, “early on it was used of the ‘places’ where a city was located,” and, eventually, “to the peculiar characteristics which citizens of a polis acquire as part of their civic heritage” (p. 101). This later usage suggests that, “in reflecting upon both the soul and the state writers felt the need to express some sort of center of belonging” (Chamberlain, p. 101). The polis , then, forms that “center of belonging” wherein individuals...

Music

Music   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
6,176 words

...works of Beethoven, whose “artistic speech at the pianoforte” Anton Schindler emphatically reports ( 1860 , p. 237). The recognition of all symbolically lingual means, especially of the figures, is necessary for the interpreters, since they all “must make musical thoughts sensible to the ear, according to their true content and affect, whether sung or played (Bach, 1753 , p. 117). For the figures bring close to us the “whole meaning” (Walther, 1955 , p. 158). The Composition Theory of Musical Rhetoric. The “artes dicendi” were taught in the Latin schools...

Ambiguity

Ambiguity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,995 words

...Language , 1966 , p. 45, Philosophy , 1973 , pp. 1, 20). Consistent with Burke's dramatistic perspective, Murray Edelman ( 1971 ) noted that shared experiences are so ambiguous that “situations” are “largely the creations of the language used to describe them” ( 1971 , p. 65). Characterizing occurrences symbolically involves the “magical decree … implicit in all language; for the mere act of naming an object or situation decrees that it is to be singled out as such-and-such rather than as something other” ( Burke , Philosophy , 1973 , p. 4). For example,...

Kairos

Kairos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,001 words

...in terms of what to say, the warp, and when to say it, the woof. The metaphor of weaving reveals a unique relation between speech and kairos . Rhetoric makes demands on the occasion and yet is bound to “present necessities” (see Rhetoric 1365a.20; Topics 117a.26–117b.2). Kairos stresses what Wichelns ( 1925 , p. 212) described as rhetoric's “bondage to the occasion and the audience,” a characteristic that distinguishes rhetoric from poetry. This use of kairos as the right time not only duplicates the meaning of rhetoric itself but also designates a...

Epideictic genre

Epideictic genre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,507 words

...( De partitione oratoria 20.69; also 21.70). while affirming that the pleasure of the audience is the goal of epideictic discourse, Quintilian still attests to its usefulness when he affirms that panegyric, an example of the speech of praise and blame, treats what is useful for Greece (3.4.14). [ See Panegyric .] Indeed, Isocrates' Panegyricus had treated the benefits of empire ( archē ) for Athens (4.20–128), and argues that loss of the archē is the beginning of the city-state's woes (4.119). E. Buchner ( 1958 , p. 7) has argued that the ...

Occasion

Occasion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,586 words

...from the beginning of the fourth century bce , enunciates a temporal kairotic ideal (2.20) as a general guide for human conduct. Alcidamas , a student of Gorgias, writes of rhetorical kairos primarily in its temporal sense. By contrast, his contemporary Isocrates ( 436–338 bce ), a student of both Gorgias and Prodicus, conceived of kairos in oratory as proper proportion and “conformity with initially decided subject matter and presentation” ( O'Sullivan , 1992 , p. 93). Doubtless this reflects his work as a logographer rather than a deliverer of...

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