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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

Titus Andronicus

Titus Andronicus   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,504 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...enjoyed by the ‘blood tragedies’ written in the late 1580s and early 1590s. In 1785 Malone ascribed the play to Marlowe, Shakespeare’s main rival at the beginning of his career. The theory of co-authorship, which first emerged in the early 20th century, is currently the most popular. Only towards the middle of the 20th century did critics start to overlook the vexed question of authorship in order to establish the intrinsic qualities of the play itself. Peter Brook ’s cornerstone production at Stratford in 1955 triggered off an unprecedented number of...

King John

King John   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,371 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...an entire dumb show of the signing of the Magna Carta in his 1899 revival. In the 20th century the play’s set pieces of pathos fell from favour, although periodic revivals rediscovered their power: among notable Constances have been Sybil Thorndike ( 1917–18 , and again in 1941 ), while the Bastard has been played to great effect by Ralph Richardson ( 1931–2 ), Paul Scofield ( 1945 ), and Richard Burton ( 1953 ). The most critically admired production of the later 20th century was undoubtedly that of Deborah Warner for the RSC ( 1988 ). Gregory...

Timon of Athens

Timon of Athens   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,245 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...speaks courteously to all his suitors, pays his friend Ventidius’ debt to free him from prison, and gives his servant Lucilius money to enable him to marry an old Athenian’s daughter. He accepts the offerings of the Poet, the Painter, and the Jeweller, and welcomes Alcibiades, 20 of his fellow knights, and even the snarling philosopher Apemantus, who rails at his fellow guests as parasites. 1.2 At Timon’s great banquet Apemantus continues to satirize the flatterers around him, who shower Timon with gifts but receive larger ones in return. A masque of...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...violating poetic justice. During the 19th century and the first part of the 20th much criticism of the play was similarly dedicated to showing how and why it was inferior to the earlier tragedies, with A. C. Bradley commenting on the critical distance Shakespeare maintains between audience and characters by ironic humour and Harley Granville-Barker praising the play’s supreme, focused craftsmanship at the expense of its vitality. Frank Harris pioneered one recurrent strain in 20th-century criticism in The Women in Shakespeare ( 1911 ) when he claimed...

Cymbeline, King of Britain

Cymbeline, King of Britain   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Welsh cave, Belarius warns his untravelled sons Polydore and Cadwal against the vices of court life: when they have gone hunting, he confides to the audience that though brought up to think he is their father they are really Guiderius and Arviragus, Cymbeline’s sons, whom he stole 20 years earlier to avenge his unjust banishment. 3.4 Near Milford, Pisanio is unable to carry out Posthumus’ orders, which he shows to Innogen: outraged, she renounces Posthumus and implores Pisanio to kill her as instructed. Pisanio tells her he is sure Posthumus has been deceived,...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...events at will. The Lupercal and the Ides of March, for example, which in the play seem to be successive days, are actually a month apart ( see Calendar, Shakespeare ’s), while the battle of Philippi was actually two battles, the deaths of Cassius and Brutus separated by 20 days rather than the few hours which seem to intervene in the play. Plutarch, however, supplies only the barest summaries of the speeches made at Caesar’s funeral by Brutus and Antony, the latter of which becomes the turning point of Shakespeare’s play, as well as one of the most...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...included J. P. Kemble (with Sarah Siddons as Portia), Edmund Kean , who played Shylock wholly sympathetically in 1814 (replacing his traditional red beard with a small black one), William Charles Macready , Charles Kean , and, most famously, Henry Irving , whose aristocratic, proud Shylock, first seen at the Lyceum in 1879 (with Ellen Terry as Portia), was a summit of his career. With actor-managers so frequently casting themselves as Shylock, the play sometimes finished at the close of his part, with Act 5 cut entirely. The 20th century,...

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,220 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the play’s performance history, and are probably authorial. Sources: Most of the plot is Shakespeare’s own invention, though the play draws on a number of literary sources. The most important is Chaucer ’s Knight’s Tale, to which Shakespeare would return, with Fletcher , nearly 20 years later, dramatizing it as The Two Noble Kinsmen . Chaucer’s story provides the basis for Shakespeare’s depiction of Theseus and Hippolyta’s marriage, which it juxtaposes, furthermore, with a rivalry between two men for the same woman, source for the competition between...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a predatory arachnid was unforgettably enhanced by the black crutches on which he scuttled and swung across the stage. Reg Wilson ©Royal Shakespeare Company Text: The play first appeared in a quarto edition in 1598 (known as Q1), after being entered in the Stationers’ Register on 20 October. This was followed by five more editions derived successively from Q1, which most scholars believe was reconstructed from memory by players who originally performed it (probably the Chamberlain’s Men , Shakespeare’s company, when they went on provincial tour in summer ...

All Is True

All Is True   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,792 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in state barges, in front of a moving diorama of all London. Irving’s popular 1892 production at the Lyceum, with himself as Wolsey, also cut most of Acts 4 and 5, and Beerbohm Tree’s in 1910 (which subsequently toured the United States) ended with Anne’s coronation. In the 20th-century theatre the play, apparently inseparable from pictorial traditions of staging which now seemed quaintly or offensively Victorian, fell into some disfavour, though still revived at intervals for major actors to measure themselves against the starring roles: Sybil...

The Two Gentlemen of Verona

The Two Gentlemen of Verona   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,682 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to Proteus (a cut often repeated over the ensuing years as the romantic celebration of male friendship over love grew ever less usual in the culture at large). The play was revived briefly at Covent Garden in 1784 , and by J. P. Kemble in 1790 and 1808 , but its only really popular British production before the mid-20th century was in 1821 , when Frederick Reynolds initiated a recurrent strand in its stage history by drastically adapting it as a musical . In common with subsequent 19th-century productions, this version idealized Valentine, who...

Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,098 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...his infatuation with Rosaline. Despite his mask he is recognized by Tybalt, whom Capulet has to restrain from challenging him. Romeo accosts Juliet and begs a kiss, subsequently learning her identity from the Nurse before he and his friends depart. Juliet similarly learns his. 2.0 The Chorus speaks of the mutual love of Romeo and Juliet, which they will pursue despite the dangers posed by their parents’ enmity. 2.1 Returning from the feast, Romeo doubles back, concealing himself despite the mocking summons of Benvolio and Mercutio. Hidden, he sees Juliet...

Richard Duke of York

Richard Duke of York   Reference library

Randall Martin, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,705 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...after they came into existence in May 1591 . There is no further stage evidence until John Crowne ’s Royalist adaptation, The Misery of Civil-War ( 1680 , staged 1681 ), whose sensationalizing climax is the battle of Towton (2.2–6). From this point until the beginning of the 20th century, Richard Duke of York was performed in England only in inferior adaptations. Much of its final act and Gloucester’s soliloquies were cannibalized by Colley Cibber ’s hugely successful and long-lived Tragical History of King Richard the Third ( 1700 ). In Germany and...

The Winter’s Tale

The Winter’s Tale   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,428 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the course of the 18th and 19th centuries, most virulently from Charlotte Lennox , who thought the statue scene ‘a low…contrivance’. Though the play still had its admirers (among them Victor Hugo and Thomas Campbell ) it only came into its own in mainstream criticism during the 20th century, partly as a result of modernism ’s enthusiasms for verbal difficulty (with which this play abounds) and for the links between drama and seasonal ritual (which the play’s highly conscious movement from winter to summer, tragedy to comedy, carefully underlines). Among the...

Macbeth

Macbeth   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,275 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...( London Magazine , 1823 ). Following Coleridge , many 19th-century critics examined how Shakespeare created the play’s distinctive atmosphere: A. C. Bradley , for example, in Shakespearean Tragedy ( 1904 ), pursued the play’s recurrent references to darkness, anticipating 20th-century discussions (by Spurgeon and others) of its imagery of blood. This increased sense of the play’s literary technique led to an impatience with earlier, realist accounts of its plot and characters, famously voiced in L. C. Knights ’s 1933 essay ‘How Many Children Had...

Othello

Othello   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,092 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... Joseph Quincy Adams ) found the play’s depiction of interracial marriage objectionable (and even Coleridge refused to see Othello as black, preferring to envisage him as an aristocratic Arab), most 19th-century critics found Othello convincingly noble. It was only in the 20th century, when T. S. Eliot took issue with A. C. Bradley ’s account of the play, that some began to adopt Iago’s view of Othello as a bombastic self-deceiver. This argument between pro- and anti-Othello factions has now been largely displaced by the discussion of Shakespeare...

Thomas Platter

Thomas Platter  

(1574–1682),Swiss traveller. Born in Basle, Platter took his medical baccalaureate at the Université de Montpellier, and later visited England from 18 September to 20 October 1599. Writing in a ...
Nathan Field

Nathan Field  

(1587–1619/20),actor and dramatist, sometimes called Nathaniel by confusion with his brother, a printer. He probably succeeded to Shakespeare's place as actor and shareholder in the King's Men, ...
Pierre Letourneur

Pierre Letourneur  

(1736–88),French translator. Letourneur's liberal translation of the Shakespearian repertoire (in 20 volumes, 1776–83) testifies to an unprecedented, proto-Romantic attempt to modernize Shakespeare's ...
Simon Forman

Simon Forman  

(1552–1611)English doctor and astrologer; he kept a ‘Bocke of Plaies’, containing accounts of visits to performances of Macbeth on 20 April 1611, The Winter's Tale on 15 May 1611, Cymbeline ...

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