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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

Empire

Empire  

A prophetic and utopian concept which attempts to theorize in philosophical terms the nature of the new paradigm of power and right that emerged alongside globalization in the latter half of the 20th ...
New Journalism

New Journalism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...emphasis on ‘human interest’ angles and interviews in more concise articles, the columns of print being broken up by cross-heads and illustrations. This new style was pioneered by W. T. Stead at the Pall Mall Gazette from 1886 and T. P. O’Connor at The Star (from 1888 ), and became the norm in the early 20th century. Of more direct literary interest, the later American movement involved a new blend of fictional presentation with journalistic research and reportage. The first important example, which provoked controversy about its techniques and...

Christy Minstrels

Christy Minstrels   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...show to London, opening in 1857 . Various other troupes also got in on the act, so that there were Christy Minstrel shows in both England and the USA into the 20th century. See also nigger...

Shilling

Shilling   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...‘to divide’) The shilling coin dates from 1504 , was originally made with a deeply indented cross, and could be easily divided into halves and quarters. Before decimalization, a shilling (1s) was worth 12 pence (12 x 1d), and there were 20 shillings in a pound (£1). After decimalization, the shilling coin was replaced by the 5p piece ( see decimal currency ). Shilling shocker See penny-dreadful . Cooing and billing, like Philip and Mary on a shilling See under cooing . Cut off with a shilling See under cut . King’s or Queen’s shilling, The See under ...

metafiction

metafiction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Calvino 's Se una notte d'inverno un viaggatore ( 1979 ), translated as If on a Winter's Night a Traveller ( 1981 ). The device is more common in late 20th-century fiction writing than it is in earlier periods and for this reason is often associated with postmodernism , although there is no direct correlation between the two. The device can also be witnessed in film and television. Further Reading: P. Waugh Metafiction: The Theory and Practice of Self-Conscious Fiction ...

Channel Islands

Channel Islands   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...administration, as well as their own courts, and they are grouped for this purpose into the two bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey. They are a lure for tourists on account of their mild, maritime climate and are a tax haven for residents. Jersey and Guernsey enjoy a tax of only 20p in the £ and there is no tax of any kind on...

Situationism

Situationism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...to some mythical past. Further Reading: M. Gardiner Critiques of Everyday Life (2000). K. Knabb (ed.) Situationist International Anthology (2007). S. Plant The Most Radical Gesture: The Situationist International and After (1992). P. Wollen Raiding the Icebox: Reflections on Twentieth-Century Culture (1993). P Wollen et al. On the Passage of a Few People through a Rather Brief Moment in Time (1991). http://www.cddc.vt.edu/sionline/index.html A comprehensive archive of Situationist publications. http://library.nothingness.org An archive and...

COBRA

COBRA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...More broadly, they wanted to displace Paris as the art capital, get away from the orthodoxy of Breton's Surrealism, and move on from abstract and non-figurative art. They did not manage to displace Paris as the capital of the art world, but COBRA did have a lasting influence on 20th-century art. The group was, however, very short-lived: it was dissolved in 1951 after the core members fell out over the role and place of politics in art. Jorn would later team up with Guy Debord to help establish Situationism . COBRA's signature style was a kind of...

Goffman, Erving

Goffman, Erving (1922–82)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... 1955 to 1958 Goffman worked on a National Institute of Mental Health‐funded ethnographic project at St Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington DC. He used this as an opportunity to gather material for his book, Asylums ( 1961 ), one of the most influential pieces of sociology in the 20th century as well as a moving and affecting account of the dehumanizing processes mental patients are subjected to. Goffman was particularly interested in the social and political mechanisms whereby certain behaviours come to be coded as clinically insane and not merely eccentric....

Bakhtin, Mikhail

Bakhtin, Mikhail (1895–1975)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Mikhail ( 1895–1975 ) A Russian linguist and literary critic , Bakhtin was a prodigious author who worked under difficult circumstances for most of his life—two World Wars as well as a revolution—and he was one of the most influential literary theorists of the 20th century. An instinctively anti-systemic yet utterly rigorous thinker, his concepts of the carnivalesque , chronotope , dialogism , heteroglossia and polyphony have had enormous resonance in almost every domain of contemporary aesthetics, but especially film and literature. He is...

Empire

Empire   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...A prophetic and utopian concept which attempts to theorize in philosophical terms the nature of the new paradigm of power and right that emerged alongside globalization in the latter half of the 20th century. Conceived by Italian Marxist Antonio Negri and American Marxist Michael Hardt in their bestselling book Empire ( 2000 ), Empire is in effect a new form of sovereignty , which is at once a brutal new power-regime bathed in blood and a new set of possibilities for liberation. Hardt and Negri claim that the sovereign authority of nation-states...

Brecht, Bertolt

Brecht, Bertolt (1898–1956)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Bertolt ( 1898–1956 ) German Marxist playwright , novelist , poet and theorist . One of the most influential writers of the 20th century and arguably the most important dramatist of his time. His writing displays what Wolfgang Haug usefully calls ‘unity-in-dispersal’, which is to say it ranges across an impressive variety of genres and styles, but at its core there is a consistent political conviction. Brecht was born in Augsburg in Southern Germany. His father was the managing director of a paper mill and solidly middle class. Brecht enrolled at...

Baudrillard, Jean

Baudrillard, Jean (1929–2007)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...called a war. See also consumer society ; simulation ; symbolic exchange . Further Reading: R. Butler Jean Baudrillard (1999). M. Gane Baudrillard's Bestiary (1991). G. Genosko Baudrillard and Signs (1998). P. Hegarty Jean Baudrillard: Live Theory (2004). D. Kellner Jean Baudrillard (1989). http://www.erraticimpact.com/~20thcentury/html/baudrillard.htm Links to online resources relating to Jean Baudrillard's biography and his...

Transpacific Femininities

Transpacific Femininities   Reference library

Denise Cruz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
6,907 words
Illustration(s):
3

...by a recurring statistic: just as tens of thousands of men migrated to the United States in the first few decades of the 20th century , so were these years also accompanied by relatively few numbers of Asian women. Accounts of early- 20th-century Asian American experience, then, necessarily foregrounded literature that focused on communities of bachelor men, paper sons, and migrant laborers. In contrast, the second half of the 20th century was characterized by feminist and queer interventions into both this history of immigration and the politics of...

Transnationalism and Asian American Performance

Transnationalism and Asian American Performance   Reference library

Elizabeth W. Son

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...this circulation has influenced the development of these performances. In the 1850s, Chinese Cantonese opera companies like Tong Hook Tong traveled to the United States to perform in San Francisco and other such cities. 20 These encounters “held great potential for intercultural theatrical experimentation and inspiration,” writes Daphne P. Lei in Operatic China: Staging Chinese Identity across the Pacific . 21 In what Lei terms a “transnational contact zone” like 19th-century California, “Chinese troupes had to adjust their performances for American...

Asians and Asian Americans in Early Science Fiction

Asians and Asian Americans in Early Science Fiction   Reference library

John Cheng

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...of technology Thomas P. Hughes noted, after World War I, laboratories, not their celebrated leaders, became the symbols of invention and discovery. “Industrial scientists, well publicized by the corporations that hired them,” he explained, “steadily displaced, in practice and in the public mind, the figure of the heroic inventor as the source of change in the material world.” “Research and development” began to replace “invention” in everyday language as American invention shifted from a “revolutionary to an evolutionary mode.” 20 Both evolutionary and...

Althusser, Louis

Althusser, Louis (1918–90)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...by invigorating debate within Marxism. Further Reading: L. Althusser L'avenir dure longtemps (1992), translated. as The Future Lasts a Long Time (1993). P. Anderson Arguments within English Marxism (1980). F. Boutang Louis Althusser: Une Biographie 1: La Formation du myth (1992). A. Callinicos Althusser's Marxism (1976). G. Elliott Althusser: The Detour of Theory (1987). E. P. Thompson The Poverty of Theory and Other Essays ...

Grillo, Evelio

Grillo, Evelio   Reference library

Kenya C. Dworkin y Méndez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Quarterly 61 (July 1982): 20–36; Gerald Poyo, With All, and for the Good of All ; and Gerald Poyo , “Tampa Cigarworkers and the Struggle for Cuban Independence,” Tampa Bay History 7 (Fall–Winter 1985): 94–105. 31. Evelro Tellerias Toca , “Los Tabaqueros Cubanos y Sus Luchas en Cayo Hueso y Tampa,” Bohemia , April 28, 1967, 13–23; Marshall MacDonald True , Revolutionaries in Exile: The Cuban Revolutionary Party, 1891–1898 (PhD diss., University of Virginia, 1965); and Barbara Ruth Johnson , “Origin of the P.R.C. in Tampa: Marti and the...

Gramsci, Antonio

Gramsci, Antonio (1891–1937)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...that Gramsci is known at all today is because of the 3,000 pages of notes he compiled while in prison, which were later smuggled out and published. However, the miserable conditions in prison aggravated his already poor health and he died in a prison hospital half way through his 20 year sentence at the age of 46. Gramsci's ‘Prison Notebooks’ as they came to be known cover an astonishing range of topics, including close readings of Marx's work which had to be written entirely from memory because communist books were not allowed in prison. His writing was also...

Hardt, Michael

Hardt, Michael (1960)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...project with Negri, which would be published in 2000 as Empire . Resonating strongly with the optimistic fervour for change ignited by the anti- WTO ( World Trade Organization ) movement that took to the streets in such numbers in Seattle, Genoa, and elsewhere as the 20th century drew to a close, the concept of Empire captured the millennial spirit of the moment perfectly and the book became an instant worldwide bestseller. Empire is only the first instalment of a vast and vastly ambitious project to rethink the political composition of our...

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