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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

Praeteritio

Praeteritio   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
121 words

...), called by Puttenham ( The Arte of English Poesie , 1589 , p. 232) “the Passager,” is a seemingly hurried reference to material under the pretense of sparing the listener tedious details. This reluctance can be motivated by the speaker's wish to pass quickly over inconvenient circumstances of his case, as when in Tristram Shandy ( 1760–1767 ), Sterne's narrator drops several subjects and playfully leaves a character “to recover, and get home from Marseilles as he can” (6.20). Praeteritio is a strategy of ironic dissimulation, disingenuously...

Identification

Identification   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,881 words

...in beings that by nature respond to symbols ” ( RM , p. 43; italics Burke's). As Burke reasoned, “A is not identical with his colleague, B. But insofar as their interests are joined, A is identified with B. Or he may identify himself with B even when their interests are not joined, if he assumes that they are, or is persuaded to believe so” ( RM , p. 20). Because of estrangement, people yearn to belong to one another and to institutions. “ ‘Belonging’ in this sense is rhetoric” ( RM , p. 28). People “belong” to one another through identification....

Secular piety

Secular piety   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,076 words

...Motives . Burke explains that “A is not identical with his colleague, B. But insofar as their interests are joined, A is identified with B. Or he may identify himself with B even when their interests are not joined, if he assumes that they are, or is persuaded to believe so” (p. 20). Just as decorum in traditional rhetoric blends contradictions, so Burke's identification allows people, by assuming that interests are joined, to stress unity in what might otherwise be perceived as a divisive situation or idea. Through secular piety, people can frame their...

Ēthos

Ēthos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
10,506 words

...refers ēthos to the “haunts” or “arena in which people and animals move” (p. 99). Given its original connection with places, “early on it was used of the ‘places’ where a city was located,” and, eventually, “to the peculiar characteristics which citizens of a polis acquire as part of their civic heritage” (p. 101). This later usage suggests that, “in reflecting upon both the soul and the state writers felt the need to express some sort of center of belonging” (Chamberlain, p. 101). The polis , then, forms that “center of belonging” wherein individuals...

Music

Music   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
6,176 words

...works of Beethoven, whose “artistic speech at the pianoforte” Anton Schindler emphatically reports ( 1860 , p. 237). The recognition of all symbolically lingual means, especially of the figures, is necessary for the interpreters, since they all “must make musical thoughts sensible to the ear, according to their true content and affect, whether sung or played (Bach, 1753 , p. 117). For the figures bring close to us the “whole meaning” (Walther, 1955 , p. 158). The Composition Theory of Musical Rhetoric. The “artes dicendi” were taught in the Latin schools...

Ambiguity

Ambiguity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,995 words

...Language , 1966 , p. 45, Philosophy , 1973 , pp. 1, 20). Consistent with Burke's dramatistic perspective, Murray Edelman ( 1971 ) noted that shared experiences are so ambiguous that “situations” are “largely the creations of the language used to describe them” ( 1971 , p. 65). Characterizing occurrences symbolically involves the “magical decree … implicit in all language; for the mere act of naming an object or situation decrees that it is to be singled out as such-and-such rather than as something other” ( Burke , Philosophy , 1973 , p. 4). For example,...

Kairos

Kairos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,001 words

...in terms of what to say, the warp, and when to say it, the woof. The metaphor of weaving reveals a unique relation between speech and kairos . Rhetoric makes demands on the occasion and yet is bound to “present necessities” (see Rhetoric 1365a.20; Topics 117a.26–117b.2). Kairos stresses what Wichelns ( 1925 , p. 212) described as rhetoric's “bondage to the occasion and the audience,” a characteristic that distinguishes rhetoric from poetry. This use of kairos as the right time not only duplicates the meaning of rhetoric itself but also designates a...

Epideictic genre

Epideictic genre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,507 words

...( De partitione oratoria 20.69; also 21.70). while affirming that the pleasure of the audience is the goal of epideictic discourse, Quintilian still attests to its usefulness when he affirms that panegyric, an example of the speech of praise and blame, treats what is useful for Greece (3.4.14). [ See Panegyric .] Indeed, Isocrates' Panegyricus had treated the benefits of empire ( archē ) for Athens (4.20–128), and argues that loss of the archē is the beginning of the city-state's woes (4.119). E. Buchner ( 1958 , p. 7) has argued that the ...

Occasion

Occasion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,586 words

...from the beginning of the fourth century bce , enunciates a temporal kairotic ideal (2.20) as a general guide for human conduct. Alcidamas , a student of Gorgias, writes of rhetorical kairos primarily in its temporal sense. By contrast, his contemporary Isocrates ( 436–338 bce ), a student of both Gorgias and Prodicus, conceived of kairos in oratory as proper proportion and “conformity with initially decided subject matter and presentation” ( O'Sullivan , 1992 , p. 93). Doubtless this reflects his work as a logographer rather than a deliverer of...

Hypertext

Hypertext   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,344 words

...BIBLIOGRAPHY Landow, George P. , ed. Hyper/Text/Theory . Baltimore, 1994. This collection of eleven essays by various authors explores the theoretical and critical implications of hypertext for narrative, literacy, rhetoric, and other aspects of writing and reading. The essays are thoughtful and suggestive. Their commentary and predictions are no less interesting in light of the fact that most were written prior to 1994 and can now be evaluated in light of the advent and growth of the World Wide Web. Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0 . Baltimore, 1997. As the...

Contingency and Probability

Contingency and Probability   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
10,817 words

...the eikos proposition derived from that nature. A stabilized, but contingent (i.e., not necessary), fact can be known ( Metaphysics 1027a20–21), and it can even be used in a demonstrative syllogism ( Analytica priora 32b20 ff.). Obviously eikos is something relatively stabilized and knowable ( Analytica priora 70a4 ff.) and, as such, offers ground for reasonable inference to further knowledge. ( Grimaldi , 1980 , p. 62) Thus, one begins to read the celebrated formulation regarding “the contingent and the probable” from the axis of the probable....

Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
6,582 words

...between hermeneutics and rhetoric—a relationship wherein, according to Gadamer ( PH ), rhetoric is not primarily a theory of forms, speeches, and persuasion, but instead is the “practical mastery” or knowhow that people have for making known to others that which is understood (p. 20). Or to put it in more Heideggerian terms, rhetoric serves as a basis for “the everydayness of Being with one another,” or what Heidegger also designates as “publicness” ( BT , pp. 149–168). Although Heidegger associated this realm of common sense and common praxis with the...

Style

Style   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,178 words

...(p. 158). The social foundation of Puttenham's theory of style ( Javitch , 1972 ; Plett , 1982–1983 ; Whigham , 1984 ) manifests itself in Puttenham's attempt to find English equivalents for Greek and Latin terms for figures and tropes. In this context, the tropes appear more significant than the figures (which Peacham, and following him, Vickers privileges). Puttenham's terms are frequently nomina agentis (nouns of action), which refer to social roles. Thus, hyperbolē is named “the Ouer reacher” or “the loud lyer” (p. 191), metonymy “the misnamer” (p....

Orality and literacy

Orality and literacy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,205 words

...concepts of “written tradition” and “written poetry.” In cultures that do not depend on the technology of writing, the concept of orality is meaningless (Lord, 1995 , p. 105n26). From the standpoint of comparative ethnography, “Written is not something that is not oral; rather it is something in addition to being oral, and that additional something varies from society to society” (Nagy, 1990 , p. 8). The absence of this technology has nothing to do with whether there can or cannot be poetics or rhetoric. Poetics and rhetoric exist without writing. A common...

Stasis

Stasis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,622 words

...in Argumentation , edited by J. M. Anderson and P. J. Dovre , pp. 142–151. Boston, 1968. Nadeau, Ray . “ Hermogenes' On Stases: A Translation with an Introduction and Notes. ” Speech Monographs (Communication Monographs) 31 (1964), pp. 361–424. Nadeau, Ray . “ Classical Systems of States in Greek: Hermagoras to Hermogenes. ” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 2 (1959), pp. 53–71. Newman, R. P. “Analysis and Issues—A Study of Doctrine.” In Readings in Argumentation , edited by J. M. Anderson and P. J. Dovre , pp. 166–181. Boston, 1968. Stroux,...

Art

Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,767 words

...“because the supreme sorrow could not be portrayed by his brush” ( quoniam summum illum luctum penicillo non posset imitari ) (Cicero, Orator 21. 72–74). Quintilian, in his discussion of the place of memory ( memoria ) in the art of the orator ( Institutio oratoria 11.2.17–20; 21–22; 23–26) offers an account of the role of both mental images ( imagines ) and pictorial images ( picturae, simulacra ), the latter in the sense of artifacts produced for the purpose of arresting, holding onto the former. The focus in this case is on the mental image rather...

Exhortation

Exhortation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,909 words

...knowledge and its specific virtue ( Fiore , 1990 , p. 162). Malherbe sees in protreptic exhortation to an enterprise or discipline through a demonstration of a hearer's condition of lack and the superiority of the advocated way of life ( 1986 , p. 122). The term is used for exhortations to the philosophical life, such as the Protrepticus of Aristotle ( 384–322 bce ), or the Exhortation to Philosophy of Iamblichus (250–330 ce ). The diatribē is another form convivial to exhortation ( Malherbe , p. 130). It is a lively, dialogic pedagogy. Diatribē is...

African-American rhetoric

African-American rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,882 words

...Idea . Philadelphia, 1987. Baker, H. Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance . Chicago, 1987. Condit, C. M. , and J. L. Loucaites . Crafting Equality: America's Anglo-African Word . Chicago, 1993. Foner, P. S. The Voice of Black America , vol. 1. New York, 1972. Foner, P. S. The Voice of Black America, 1797–1971 . New York, 1972. Foner, P. S. , and R. Branham . Lift Every Voice: African American Oratory, 1787–1900 . Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1998. Gates, H. L. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism . New York, 1988. George,...

Credibility

Credibility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,660 words

...of the speaker. Aristotle (384–322 bce ). His Rhetoric begins with very critical remarks about the preoccupation of orators and writers of rhetorical handbooks with a rhetorical strategy that relies mostly on the speaker's ability to influence the audience's emotions (1.1.1354b20). In his own rhetorical theory, he limits the role of emotions by adding, and assigning greater importance to, two other modes of persuasion: the rhetorical syllogism or enthymeme (1355a7), and the character ( ēthos ) of the speaker, which he calls the most important mode of...

Conviction

Conviction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,002 words

...of audience, premises, associative and dissociative forms, and argument order. It also explains the philosophical foundations for Perelman's theory of argument. Perelman, Chaim . “ The New Rhetoric and the Rhetoricians: Remembrances and Comments. ” Quarterly Journal of Speech 20 (1984), pp. 188–196. In this important essay written shortly before his death in 1983, Perelman notes that critics such as Ray and Ede have failed to distinguish between views in The New Rhetoric that he attributed to other people and his own views. Perelman emphasizes the role...

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