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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

Word-and-Paradigm Model

Word-and-Paradigm Model  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
The phrase “word and paradigm” refers to a model of morphology that was usual in the Western tradition until the development of morphemics in the mid-20th century. Since 1960 it ...
Igbo

Igbo  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
One of the major ethnic groups in Nigeria, with roughly 17 to 20 million Igbos concentrated in the southeastern part of the country.Belonging to the Kwa subgroup of the ...
inner speech

inner speech  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
The mental use of words or language without physical articulation of speech sounds. See also phonological loop.
Bakhtin, Mikhail

Bakhtin, Mikhail (1895–1975)   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
190 words

...Mikhail ( 1895–1975 ). Bakhtin was one of the most original thinkers in 20th-century Russia. His work was obstructed or suppressed under the Soviet regime but was seminal for semiotics and literary theory in the West, though it became known only after it was translated starting in the 1960s and 1970s; part of it was published posthumously. Some of his first books were published in collaboration with, or under the name of, others, such as V. N. Voloshinov and P. N. Medvedev : Freudianism ( 1927 , transl. 1973 ), Marxism and the philosophy of...

Minimalist Program

Minimalist Program   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,493 words

...for linguistic theory. In The view from Building 20. Essays in honor of Sylvain Bromberger , edited by Kenneth Hale and S. J. Keyser . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Chomsky, Noam . 1995. The Minimalist Program . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Rizzi, L. 1990. Relativized minimality . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Rosenbaum, P. 1970. A principle governing deletion in English sentential complementations. In Readings in English transformational grammar , edited by R. Jacobs and P. Rosenbaum , pp. 20–29. Waltham, Mass.: Ginn. Norbert...

Tangut-Qiang Languages

Tangut-Qiang Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,176 words

...language use by the elderly, moderately vigorous by adults, half the time by young people, not as often by children. Parents transmit it to children. Speakers are positive about Namuyi. Intellectuals are concerned about its future. Pumi, Northern: also called P'umi, Pimi, Primmi, Pruumi, P'ömi, P'rome, Ch'rame. 35,000 speakers in southwestern Sichuan, Muli, Yanyuan, and Kiulong counties; and northwestern Yunnan, Yongning district of Ninglang county. Northern Pumi has five subdialects. Intelligibility with Southern Pumi is difficult. Perhaps a third are...

Korean

Korean   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,378 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the speaker recollects what he observed in the past, and reports it in the present situation. Thus Mary ka hakkyo e ka-p-ti-ta is roughly ‘I observed that Mary was going to school, and now I report to you what I observed.’ The most typical moods are declarative -ta , interrogative -k'a , imperative -la , and propositive -ca . The mood suffixes occur in the final position of finite verbal forms: (20) ka-p-ni-ta ‘he is going’ ka-p-nik'a ‘is he going?’ ka-la ‘go!’ ka-ca ‘let's go!’ There are three main speech levels with respect to politeness. In...

Fula

Fula   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,220 words
Illustration(s):
1

...N -u -wu -gu/-ku -ŋgu 15b ŋgii * N -ii -wii -gii -ŋgii 16 ŋgal P -hal -wal -gal -ŋgal 17 ŋgol P -ol -wol -gol -ŋgol 18 ka N -a -ha/-wa * -ka -ka 19 ki P -i -hi/-wi * -ki -ki 20 ko C -o -ho/-wɔ * -ko -ko 21 kol * P -ol -hol/-wol * -kol -kol 22 ɗam N -am -jam -ɗam -ɗam 23a ɗum P -um -jum -ɗum -ɗum 23b ’ o P -o -jo -ɗo -ɗo 24 ɗe P -e -je -ɗe/-le -ɗe/-le 25 ɗi P -hi -hji -ɗi/-li -ɗi/-li Classes 2, 6, 8, and 24–25 (the last in each section) have plural meaning. Classes 1 and 2 are personal classes (singular and plural), while 3–8 have specialized meanings, viz....

Word-and-Paradigm Model

Word-and-Paradigm Model   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
399 words

...Model . The phrase “word and paradigm” refers to a model of morphology that was usual in the Western tradition until the development of morphemics in the mid-20th century. Since 1960 it has been increasingly revindicated, at least for languages of the flectional type (see Robins 1959 ). For general reference, see Matthews 1991 , Carstairs-McCarthy 1992 ; for recent extensions, Anderson 1992 , Stump 2001 . In the tradition, words as wholes carry meanings. For example, Latin vēnerō ‘I will have come’ carries the lexical meaning ‘to come’,...

Malayalam

Malayalam   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,466 words
Illustration(s):
3

.... Syntax 4.20:63–93. Mohanan, K. P. 1982. Grammatical relations and clause structure in Malayalam. In The mental representation of grammatical relations , edited by Joan Bresnan , pp. 504–589. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Mohanan, K. P. 1983. Functional and anaphoric control . Linguistic Inquiry 14.641–674. Mohanan, K. P. 1984. Operator binding and the Path Containment Condition . Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 2.357–396. Mohanan, K. P. 1986. The theory of lexical phonology . Dordrecht: Reidel. Mohanan, K. P. 1997. Grammatical...

Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...who return do not like Quechua speakers to use Spanish loans. Quechua, Ayacucho: also called Runasimi, Chanka. 900,000 speakers in Peru, the southwestern Ayacucho region and Lima. Dialects are Andahuaylas, Huancavelica. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 31%, 1 20%, 2 20%, 3 20%, 4 8%, 5 1%. Perhaps 300,000 are monolingual, 600,00 can speak varying degrees of Spanish. Some families are switching to Spanish. Spoken in local administration, oral and written Ayacucho Quechua used in some schools and more than one university. Parents transmit Ayacucho...

Wolof

Wolof   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,345 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and Robert 2001 ), linked to the grammaticalization of focus in the verb. Wolof is usually described as having 35 phonemes (20 consonants, 8 short and 7 long vowels), without counting geminate and prenasalized consonants (see Tables 1 and 2). Table 1. Vowel Phonemes of Wolof (Official Senegal Orthography) Table 2. Consonant Phonemes of Wolof (Official Senegal Orthography) Labial Dental (Alveolar) Palatal Velar Uvular Stops p t e k q b d j g Nasals m n ñ η Fricatives f s x Trills r Laterals l Semivowels y w In final position, stops have special...

Agrammatism

Agrammatism   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,384 words

...characterized by replacements of items. Late 20th century neurolinguists have become uncomfortable with such a dichotomy (Heeschen 1985 ), especially considering the following facts: (i) Both omissions and substitutions may be observed in a single agrammatic patient, and may systematically involve the same grammatical morphemes. (ii) Language-specific structural constraints sometimes force the patient to produce substitutions rather than omissions, e.g. in Hebrew. The study of agrammatism, at the end of the 20th century, is a prototypical example of...

Phonology

Phonology   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
7,124 words

... p ’s of Eng. pit and spit differ in aspiration, the puff of air that immediately follows the release of the closure at the lips. If we transcribe aspirated p as [p h ], then we can represent these two words phonetically as [p h it] and [spit]. From a phonological standpoint, however, the phonetically distinct p 's of these two words are not in contrast: whether p is aspirated is entirely predictable by a rule of pronunciation, i.e. “Aspirate p when it begins a syllable.” The phoneme written as /p/ is expressed as one of its two allophones [p] or...

Speech Synthesis

Speech Synthesis   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,025 words
Illustration(s):
3

...O'Shaughnessy, Douglas . 1987. Speech communication . Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. Rubin, P. , T. Baer , and P. Mermelstein . 1981. An articulatory synthesizer for perceptual research . Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 70.321–328. Rye, J. M. , and John N. Holmes . 1982. A versatile software parallel-formant synthesizer . London: Joint Speech Research Unit, Research Report 1016. van Santen, Jan P. H. ; Richard Sproat ; Joseph P. Olive ; and Julia Hirschberg , eds. 1997. Progress in speech synthesis . New York: Springer....

Uto-Aztecan Languages

Uto-Aztecan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,500 words
Illustration(s):
2

...can best be explained by the fact that the speakers of P[roto]-UA were nomadic foragers, who, like the present-day Numic groups, spoke interlinking dialects over a wide area. UA is one of the best documented language families in North America. There is good lexical and grammatical material available for most of the extant languages. Some of the Mexican languages, especially Aztec, were well documented by missionary linguists in colonial times. Modern historical linguistic work began early in the 20th century, and continues to be a very active tradition,...

Isolates

Isolates   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,218 words

...of Standard Korean may be lower on Cheju Island. Korean script (Hangul) used. The McCune-Reischauer system is the official Roman orthography in South Korea used for maps and signs. National language. In North Korea: 20,000,000 speakers. Dialects are Hamgyongdo (North Hamgyongdo, South Hamgyongdo), P'yong'ando (North P'yong'ando, South P'yong'ando), Hwanghaedo. Dialect boundaries generally correspond to provincial boundaries. Some dialects are not easily intelligible with others. Korean script (Hangul). National language. In China: Inner Mongolia. 46% of...

Reduplication

Reduplication   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
720 words

...McCarthy . 1983. A theory of internal reduplication . Linguistic Review 3.25–88. Dressler, Wolfgang U. 1968. Studien zur verbalen Pluralität . Graz: Böhlau. Harrison, S. P. 1973. Reduplication in Micronesian languages . Oceanic Linguistics 12.407–454. Kitagawa, Yoshihisa . 1987. Redoing reduplication: A preliminary sketch. In Discontinuous constituency (Syntax and semantics, 20), edited by Geoffrey J. Huck and Almerindo R. Ojeda , pp. 71–106. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press. Marantz, Alec . 1982. Re reduplication . Linguistic Inquiry 13.435–482....

Polish

Polish   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,016 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Polacy /polatsi/ ‘Poles’); with /tš/ ( piekę /p'ekẽ/ ‘I bake’, piecze /p'etše/ ‘bakes’); and with /tɕ/ ( szybko /šipko/ ‘fast’, szybciej /šiptɕej/ ‘faster’). Vowel alternations are exemplified by miasto /m'asto/ ‘town’, w mieście /vm'eɕtɕe/ ‘in town’; róg /ruk/ ‘corner’, na rogu /na rogu/ ‘on the corner’. 5. Morphology (see Szober 1971, Brooks 1975) Modern Polish has only two numbers, singular and plural; but the dual is well attested in early texts, and remnants of it survived into the 20th century in dialects. There are seven cases:...

Italian

Italian   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,717 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and notably archaic Romance language. By far the largest Italophone communities outside Italy owe their origin to successive waves of emigration in the 19th and 20th centuries. There are four million Italian speakers in the United States, one and one-half million in Argentina, and about half a million each in Australia, Canada, and Brazil. After many years of neglect, the last quarter of the 20th century has seen a marked increase in language awareness and promotion by the members of these communities. Nonetheless, the central question still remains: What...

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