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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...there was a major discontinuity in the form of population increase. Taking England and Wales alone, population rose from below 6.5 million in 1751 to almost 18 million in 1851 . The trebling of Britain's population in just over a century, if we take the figure to 1861 (20.1 million), seems the most startling parallel to economic growth. However, as has long been recognized, England and Wales did not possess the only rapidly increasing populations in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Other European populations were also growing,...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...manifestations of the ongoing debate over the nature and function of art exhibition and the social composition of its viewing public. The boisterous early years of the Society of Artists exhibition are a case in point. In 1761 their exhibition was so popular and their estimated 20,000 viewers so rambunctious that thirteen pounds and six shillings were laid out afterwards to repair windows broken during the show. In an attempt to regulate not only behaviour but also the class of people attending its show, the Society instituted a one-shilling admission fee...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...no doubt reflects the importance of courtship in the lives of the readers, and of marriage as the one sure means to economic survival for many. The average age of marriage for the majority of the lower orders in most of Britain (excluding Ireland) was quite late, around the mid-20s, and the extensive period during which courtship loomed large was reason enough for young women to want to read or consult fortune-tellers about the subject of marriage, and to be reassured that they could have recourse to supernatural help in seeing, or even finding, their future...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., London, 1967, 43–73; Corfield, P. , ed., Language, History and Class , Oxford, 1991; Cunningham, H. , ‘ The Language of Patriotism, 1750–1914 ’, History Workshop , 12 (1981), 8–33; Davidoff, L. , & Hall, C. , Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class 1780–1850 , London, 1987; Epstein, J. , Radical Expression: Political Language, Ritual, and Symbol in England, 1790–1850 , Oxford, 1994; Jones, G. S. , Languages of Class: Studies in English Working-Class History, 1832–1982 , Cambridge, 1983; Joyce, P. , Visions of the People:...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...*policing, 7 ]. Violent protests and radical political agitation were most likely to occur in periods of crisis created by economic depression at home and revolution abroad. Bad harvests and industrial depression were particularly severe in the mid- and late-1790s, 1810–13 , 1816–20 , and 1829–32 , while the American and French *wars [2] produced high taxes, inflation, financial instability, and an economy distorted by wartime demands and commercial warfare. Soon after the end of the Napoleonic war in 1815 the economy went into recession, and stayed...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thought to have been used as materials for sermons. Warton too dealt with the ‘Gesta’ in an appendix, though more decorously. A democratic ‘Citizen Shakespeare’ indeed made real headway in the 1790s, the decade of the *Boydell Shakespeare Gallery, a generous commercial *viewing [20] venture to give the public a worthy illustrated version of the national poet. With Steevens once more in charge of the text, the overall impact of the unfinished but widely dispersed project, abandoned in 1802 , was already Doucean, just as Douce's disaggregated Shakespeare...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...G. J. , The Culture of Sensibility: Sex and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain , Chicago, 1992; Borsay, P. , The English Urban Renaissance: Culture and Society in the Provincial Town, 1660–1770 , Oxford, 1989; Brissenden, R. F. , Virtue in Distress: Studies in the Novel of Sentiment from Richardson to Sade , New York, 1974; Campbell, C. , The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism , Oxford, 1987; Langford, P. , A Polite and Commercial People: England, 1727–1783 , Oxford, 1989; Lawrence, C. , ‘The Nervous System and Society in...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...It was forced to conduct a mass mobilization, trebling the number of men in its armed forces from the highest total of the American war. It was also forced to expand the militia and to endorse the creation of a *volunteer force throughout the country. In 1803–4 something like 20 per cent of the adult male populations of the rural counties and 35 per cent of the more industrial and urban counties were enlisted in the volunteers. The result was a country in arms, with a substantial proportion of the British male public holding weapons, something which Pitt...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to competition (though within the restrictions of contemporary *mercantilist ideals), led to a rush of slavers, investors, and associated British industries eager to satisfy the slave-owners's needs. In the first half of the eighteenth century, British slavers delivered some 20,000 Africans each year. For the rest of the century the figures rose to between 35,000 and 40,000 annually. Between the end of the Royal African Company's slave trading monopoly in 1698 and the abolition of the British trade in 1807 , perhaps 11,000 ships were dispatched from...

Life Sciences

Life Sciences  

Contrasting eighteenth-century views about the nature and significance of life were presented in the two great encyclopedias of the eighteenth century. The first edition of the Encyclopaedia ...
Lamy, Bernard

Lamy, Bernard (1640–1715)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
683 words

... Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat ; Oratorians ; and Rousseau, Jean-Jacques .] Girbal, François . Bernard Lamy (1640–1715), bio-bibliographie . Paris, 1964. Lamy, Bernard . Entretiens sur les sciences . Critical edition by F. Girbal and P. Clair . Paris, 1966. Robinet, André . Malebranche vivant. Vol. 20 of Malebranche's Œuvres complètes . Paris, 1958; 2d ed., Paris, 1972. François Girbal Translated from French by Betsy...

Hardouin, Jean

Hardouin, Jean (1646–1729)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,380 words

...Jesuite, dans les Ecrits de tous les Peres de l'Eglise, et des Philosophes modernes . n.p., 1715. See also his An Answer to the Reverend Dr. Snape's Accusation . London, 1717. A satirical exposition of Hardouin's system by a former disciple. Malebranche, Nicolas . Oeuvres complètes . Edited by André Robinet . Vols. 19–20. Paris, 1968. Precious materials on Hardouin's campaign against Malebranchism as disguised atheism. Secondary Sources Chédozeau, Bernard . Le P. Hardouin et le refus du rationalisme en religion. Une reconstruction ultramontaine de...

Saint Petersburg Academy

Saint Petersburg Academy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,393 words

... A. G. Cross , pp. 204–211. Newtonville, Mass., 1979. On the distinctiveness of Peter the Great's Academy. Ostrovitianov, K. V. , ed. Istoriia Akademii nauk SSSR . 2 vols. Moscow and Leningrad, 1958. Vol. 1 of this official Soviet history covers the eighteenth century. Pekarskii, P. P. Istoriia Imperatorskoi Akademii nauk . 2 vols. St. Petersburg, 1870–1873. The classic account of the Academy. Schulze, Ludmilla . The Russification of St. Petersburg Academy of Science and Arts in the Eighteenth Century . British Journal for the History of Science 18 (1985),...

Lewis and Clark Expedition

Lewis and Clark Expedition   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,714 words

...century and were eventually published. Jackson, Donald , ed. Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expeditions with Related Documents, 1783–1854 . 2d ed. Urbana, Ill., 1978. Ronda, James P. Lewis and Clark among the Indians , Lincoln, Nebr., 1984. By far the most sophisticated treatment of the encounters between and relationships among American and Indians. Ronda, James P. Thomas Jefferson and the Changing West . Albuquerque, N.M., 1997. A collection of essays by a wide variety of scholars which explores the larger contexts of the expedition. Andrew R. L....

Ancients and Moderns

Ancients and Moderns   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,706 words

...Friedrich ; Tradition ; and Winckelmann, Johann Joachim .] Aldridge, A. Owen . Ancients and Moderns in the Eighteenth Century. In Dictionary of the History of Ideas , edited by Philip P. Wiener , vol. 1, pp. 76–87. New York, 1973. Baron, Hans . The Querelle of the Ancients and the Modernes as a Problem for Renaissance Scholarship . Journal of the History of Ideas 20 (1959), 3–22. Blumenberg, Hans . The Legitimacy of the Modern Age . Trans. by Robert M. Wallace . Cambridge, Mass., 1983. Originally published in German as Die Legitimität der Neuzeit ....

Malebranche, Nicolas

Malebranche, Nicolas (1638–1715)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,539 words

...Robinet . 20 vols. Paris, 1958–1967. The Search after Truth . Translated by Thomas M. Lennon and Paul J. Olscamp . Cambridge, 1997. Dialogues on Metaphysics and Religion . Edited by Nicholas Jolley , translated by David Scott . Cambridge, 1997. Treatise on Nature and Grace . Translated by Patrick Riley . Oxford, 1992. Works about Malebranche Alquié, Ferdinand . Le cartésianisme de Malebranche . Paris, 1974. An examination of what Malebranche inherited from orthodox Cartesianism and what he modified or rejected. André, Yves . La vie du R. P....

Mysticism

Mysticism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,372 words

.... Paris, 1984. Cherel, Albert . Fénelon au XVIII ème siècle en France (1715–1820). Paris, 1917; repr., Geneva, 1970. Chevallier, Marjolaine . Pierre Poiret, 1646–1719: Du protestantisme à la mystique . Geneva, 1994. Cruz Moliner, José de La . Espagne, du 18 ème siècle au 20 ème siècle. In Dictionnaire de spiritualité . Paris, 1937–1995. Vol. 4, col. 1178–1183. Gusdorf, G. Dieu, la nature, l'homme au siècle des lumières . Paris, 1976. Gusdorf, G. Naissance de la conscience romantique au siècle des lumières . Paris, 1976. Le Brun, Jacques ....

Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes

Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
10,055 words

... Malebranche, Nicolas ; Montesquieu ; Netherlands ; Newton, Isaac ; Print Culture ; Republic of Letters ; Republicanism ; Republicanism , subentry on The Netherlands ; Toland, John ; Translation ; and Wolff-Bekker, Betje .] Buijnsters, P. J. Spectatoriale geschriften . Utrecht, 1991. de Quay, P. P. De genoeg zaam heid van het natuurlijk gezond verstand . The Hague, 2000. Johannes, G. J. De barometer van de smaak: Tijdschriften in Nederland, 1770–1830 . The Hague, 1995. Maass, Léonie . Het Journal Littéraire de La Haye (1713–1723): De...

Scholarly Associations and Publications

Scholarly Associations and Publications   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,431 words

... Eighteenth-Century Research: Objects, Methods, and Institutions (1945–1995) . Paris, 1998. A collection of essays on the development of eighteenth-century studies since the end of World War II. Epstein, William . Professing the Eighteenth Century . ADE Bulletin 81 (Fall 1985), 20–25. Brief sketch of the professionalization of eighteenth-century studies between 1925 and 1975. Greene, Donald . ‘ More than a Necessary Chore': The Eighteenth-Century Current Bibliography in Retrospect and Prospect . Eighteenth-Century Studies 10 (Autumn 1976), 94–110. Greene,...

Academies

Academies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
11,662 words
Illustration(s):
1

...high clergy, and working men of letters—were treated equally and did not automatically receive pensions. Voltaire, while plundering the academy's papers (published in its Histoire et Mémoires ) had running battles on matters of erudition with P.-N. Bonamy , E. L. de Foncemagne , and P.-H. Larcher (all of whom had right on their side). In addition to the stigma attached to being a government institution, the academy suffered from the intellectual handicap of working in an area inimical to the philosophe viewpoint. Jean LeRond d'Alembert's...

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