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original Sin

Subject: Religion

The tendency to evil supposedly innate in all human beings, held to be inherited from Adam in consequence of the Fall. The concept of original sin was established by the writings of St ...

original sin

original sin   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
55 words

... sin In the Bible, the sin committed by Adam and Eve when they ate from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, for which they were made mortal and expelled from the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3). Their guilt was said to have been passed down to their descendants through all the...

original sin

original sin   Reference library

Philip L. Quinn

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
104 words

... sin . According to this Christian doctrine, the sin of early humans, represented in the Hebrew Bible by Adam and Eve disobeying a divine command not to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge, had disastrous consequences for their progeny. An influential tradition founded by Augustine claims that the descendants of Adam inherit by causal transmission from him both an innate propensity to sin and innate guilt . This view is problematic because it seems that guilt can be neither inherited nor innate. Prof. Philip L. Quinn See also shame . N. P....

Original Sin

Original Sin   Quick reference

A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
136 words

... Sin The doctrine that, as a result of Adam's fall, all human beings are tainted with sinfulness. It is often said that Judaism does not know of the doctrine, believing that man does not sin because he is a sinner but is a sinner because he sins, as it has been neatly but inaccurately put. The truth is that, while the notion of original sin does not feature at all prominently in conventional Jewish theology, a similar doctrine is found in the Kabbalah and even in the thought of some moderns. Of course, even in those versions of Judaism in which the idea...

Original sin

Original sin   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... sin That corruption that is born with humankind and is the inheritance of all the offspring of adam . Theology teaches that as Adam was founder of his race, when Adam fell, the taint and penalty of his disobedience passed to all...

Original Sin

Original Sin   Reference library

Gerhard Podskalsky

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
341 words

... Sin (προπατορικὴ ἁμαρτία), the hereditary sin to which every human being is subject at conception as the result of the sinful choice of Adam and Eve . Because of the ancestral fall of man, predisposition to evil is already present in infants and can increase as the person matures, owing to his or her personal guilt (an idea particularly stressed by Augustine ). As a result of original sin, all humanity remained excluded from paradise until the “original virginity” (the expression of a certain John the Monk , sometimes confused with John of...

Original Sin

Original Sin   Reference library

Mathijs Lamberigts

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,149 words

...he accepted Aug.'s idea that all human beings sinned in Adam. However, Eriugena was of the opinion that Adam's sin was at once a personal sin for which all individual human beings became responsible. His sin, in other words, was not a tendency to sin but an actual sin that we inherited ( Gross 1963 , 351). For Eriugena, nature as such is not able to sin, a position that probably resulted from his interest in Greek theology. Original sin was the result of pride, turning...

original sin

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
146 words

... sin The state of sin that has captured human beings since the Fall. The idea that we have plenty to be ashamed about simply through being alive is one of the less appealing of ethical doctrines, but is also one of the main components of any variety of Christianity, since without it the doctrine of the atonement loses its rationale. The precise way in which Adam’s guilt was transmitted to us all has, naturally, exercised theologians. For Augustine , it simply comes as a consequence of sexual reproduction and its accompanying concupiscence . For ...

Original Sin

Original Sin   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
548 words

...both M. Luther and J. Calvin again equated Original Sin with concupiscence and affirmed that it destroyed liberty and persisted after Baptism. D. Soto , on the other hand, in restating the doctrine of Aquinas eliminated the element of concupiscence from the definition altogether and identified Original Sin with the loss of sanctifying grace; his views were widely influential in the RC Church, though the Jansenists inclined towards the old Augustinian pessimism. From the 18th cent. the dogma of Original Sin was attenuated by the Enlightenment 's...

original sin

original sin   Reference library

Becket Soule OP

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,764 words

...Vatican Council on the corporate aspects of sin and redemption. ‡ Becket Soule OP F. R. Tennant , The Origin and Propagation of Sin (Hulsean Lectures for 1901–2; 1902). F. R. Tennant , The Sources of the Doctrines of the Fall and Original Sin (1903). N. P. Williams , The Ideas of the Fall and of Original Sin (Bampton Lectures for 1924; 1927), with formularies repr., 537–50. E. Brunner , Der Mensch im Widerspruch (Zürich, 1937; Eng. tr., Man in Revolt , 1939). F. H. Maycock , Original Sin (Glasgow, 1948). L. Ligier , Péché d’Adam et...

Original sin

Original sin   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
193 words

... sin . In Christian theology the state of sin into which everyone is born as a result of the fall of Adam. The basis of this in the Bible is Paul 's teaching that ‘through one man [Adam] sin entered the world’, so that ‘by the trespass of the one the many died’ (Romans 5. 12). It was developed by the early Greek fathers , but became most precise in Latin writers of the 2nd–5th cents., culminating in Augustine 's formulation. According to this, Adam's sin has been transmitted from parent to child ever since. The human race has thus become a ‘lump of...

original sin

original sin   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... sin the tendency to evil supposedly innate in all human beings, held to be inherited from Adam in consequence of the Fall. The concept of original sin was established by the writings of St Augustine and the view of some early theologians that the human will is capable of good without the help of divine grace was branded a...

original sin

original sin noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
61 words
original sin

original sin noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
69 words
original sin

original sin noun   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
29 words
original sin

original sin noun   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
108 words
original sin

original sin noun   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
51 words
original Sin

original Sin  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The tendency to evil supposedly innate in all human beings, held to be inherited from Adam in consequence of the Fall. The concept of original sin was established by the writings of St Augustine and ...
Prayer of Manasseh

Prayer of Manasseh   Reference library

George W. E. Nickelsburg and George W. E. Nickelsburg

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,901 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in 2 Kings 21 and 2 Chr 33 . 2. It is uncertain whether the Greek of the prayer is the language of its composition or a translation of a Semitic original ( APOT i. 614–15; OTP ii. 625–7). The Greek does have a strong Semitic flavour, but it also uses phrases paralleled in the LXX and has some linguistic constructions that suggest composition in Greek. B. Literary Genre. This penitential prayer, or confession of sin, spoken in the first person singular, has relatively few counterparts among the individual laments of the canonical psalter. Its closest parallel...

Romans

Romans   Reference library

Craig C. Hill and Craig C. Hill

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,053 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the obedience of Jesus, the very Son of God ( v. 19 ; see also 1 Cor 15:45–9 ). Paul argues on the basis of Gen 3 only that ‘sin came into the world through one man’. (There were of course two human players in the Garden drama. Eve has gone missing.) He does not propound a theory (‘original sin’) concerning the conveyance of sin, biological or otherwise, from one generation to the next. The proof of the ubiquity of sin is the universality of its consequence: death ( v. 12; Gen 3:3 ). The resurrection of Christ thus overturns death introduced by Adam:...

Leviticus

Leviticus   Reference library

Lester L. Grabbe and Lester L. Grabbe

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
22,756 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as the one which developed in Judaism, Janowski and Wilhelm ( 1993 : 161–2) argue that the original meaning of the word was ‘for (the elimination of) God's wrath’. vv. 15–19 , after the priest had sacrificed for himself and his family, he next sacrificed the goat on whom the lot for God had fallen. This goat became a sin offering and was sacrificed and the blood sprinkled on the ark, which atoned for the holy place (polluted because of the sins of the people). The altar was atoned for by sprinkling on it the blood from both the bull and goat. vv....

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