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organizing model

This refers to an approach to trade union recruitment and organizing developed by American trade unions in the 1980s which has since influenced union practice in a number of countries, ...

organizing model

organizing model   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Resource Management (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
122 words

...organizing model This refers to an approach to trade union recruitment and organizing developed by American trade unions in the 1980s which has since influenced union practice in a number of countries, including Australia, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, and the UK. At the heart of the model is the notion that unions should rest upon the ‘self-activity’ or activism of their members. Recruitment of workers into trade unions, therefore, should not be done on the basis of providing member services but through mobilizing workers in campaigns that result in the...

organizing model

organizing model  

This refers to an approach to trade union recruitment and organizing developed by American trade unions in the 1980s which has since influenced union practice in a number of countries, including ...
The Concept of Islamic Socialism

The Concept of Islamic Socialism   Reference library

A. K. Brohi

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,409 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...not Islam simply, but Islamic Socialism will redeem us and will help us to organise our lives much more meaningfully than we are able to do so at present. If Islam is a universal religion, that is to say, a way of life which is valid for all time, for all people, and for all geographical habitats, then why does it not also have an adequate answer to those specific economico-political problems with which we are confronted in Pakistan—so that we are forced to borrow our “model” from an alien culture and civilization? If Socialism may be defined as a...

1 Chronicles

1 Chronicles   Reference library

H. P. Mathys, H. P. Mathys, and H. P. Mathys

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,015 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...He simultaneously extends and shortens his source model material. As is his habit, he organizes the procession to Gibeon democratically. At the same time he creates a close link between the tabernacle and the temple in Jerusalem, which does not exist in 1 Kings 3 . The extended scene at Gibeon in this chapter is a shortened version of the source model which has then been enriched with the Chronicler's own theology. vv. 3–13 contain a ‘theology of the sanctuary’ in a nutshell. In the source model, God's appearance at Gibeon is followed by the story of...

Sonnets

Sonnets   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...between the 1609 texts of Sonnets 2 and 106 and versions transcribed in 17th-century manuscripts, and between the 1609 texts of 138 and 144 and the versions published in The Passionate Pilgrim , suggest that Shakespeare revised some of the earlier-composed poems when organizing his collected sonnets into the book published in 1609 . The positioning of A Lover’s Complaint as the tailpiece to the collection—itself convincingly dated to around 1603–4 —suggests that Shakespeare finished assembling the book at around that time. Text: The 1609 text of...

Titus Andronicus

Titus Andronicus   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,504 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the support of the people of Rome, and wait patiently for the day when they can safely ‘massacre them all’. Aaron, Tamora’s black servant and lover, settles a dispute between Chiron and Demetrius over Lavinia, by suggesting that they should both rape her in the woods. 2.1 Titus organizes a royal hunt to celebrate the Emperor’s wedding. 2.2 Aaron and Tamora meet in the woods and Aaron discloses his plans to have Lavinia raped and Bassianus killed. Tamora tells her sons that Bassianus and Lavinia have been threatening to take her life. Prompted by Tamora, Chiron...

The Psychological Role of Islam in Economic Development

The Psychological Role of Islam in Economic Development   Reference library

Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,229 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...inspiration for Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini’s doctrine of the “mandate of the jurist” [ wilayat al-faqih ; Pers. vilayat-i faqih ]. Here, however, al-Sadr’s point is to show that post-independence elites have chosen either the capitalist or the socialist model to develop their economies and that neither model has brought success. The leaders have been faced with “the artificial conditions created by the colonialists in the region” in order to prevent development by the Muslims. Sadr commends what he terms “the Islamic program” and its economic system to the...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...relations between patricians and plebs fractured, and with it some of the viability of the appeal to custom as a language of persuasion and an emollient of relations between these social groups. Many developments were already leading in this direction: agrarian capitalists were organizing their production of crops for free movement and profitable sale in the market-place, statute law was enshrining absolute powers of ownership rather than differential use rights to property, and employers were imposing new work disciplines and redefining as theft what artisans...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...generally against the perceived excesses of evangelical enthusiasm. By the mid-18 th century, literary sentimentalism offered a semblance of common ground between the evangelical and rationalist models, blending their shared emphasis on moral formation. The popularity of Samuel *Richardson ’s Pamela suggested the emergent power of this model, even as it engendered enduring debates about the potentially pernicious effects of novel-reading. The Revolution did not immediately transform Americans’ reading, although it inspired the first indigenous...

Islamic Culture in Danger

Islamic Culture in Danger   Reference library

Muhammad Shahrur

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,191 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...mansukh ) and the reasons for revelation ( asbab al-nuzul ) and the principle of analogy ( mabda’a al-qiyas ). The present Arab intellect is an analogical intellect and an analogical intellect does not create or produce any knowledge. It is based on the authentic model of the seventh century. This model is treated analogically in a repetitious fashion. Arab thought is repetitious; it repeats itself through analogy which is the only domain for exercising the intellect. The Islam we have today with its concept of what is necessarily fixed in religion and the concept...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Andrew Vlies

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,292 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of the continent ( see 9 ). The arrival of print and the book produced ambivalent results in zones of cultural contact: facilitating productive engagements with modernity yet silencing ancient cultures; promoting new forms of knowledge while functioning as a vehicle for organizing site-specific hierarchies of power. Early Portuguese settlements were established in West Africa in the 15 th century, and the European slave trade—which would transport more than 11.5 million Africans to Europe and the Americas between the 16 th and 19 th centuries—began...

Literary Theory

Literary Theory   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,935 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...information about an external, objective world (economics, politics, and so on). The literature of power draws our attention inwards, to the subjective world, by inducing us to ‘feel vividly, and with a vital consciousness, emotions which … had previously lain unwakened’. By organizing and actualizing ‘these inert and sleeping forms’, this second kind of writing communicates a sense of our own power by revealing hitherto unrecognized dimensions of the self. Where a literature of knowledge tells us that we are dwarfed by the infinity of the external world, a...

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy   Reference library

Carol Meyers

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,793 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...sociopolitical systems, anthropologists' ethnographically based models have become highly relevant to the question of Israelite monarchic beginnings. Although there are pitfalls in the anthropological discussions of state formation, such as the way ideas about the early state are colored by the familiarity of theorists with precapitalist, occidental (European) nation-states, the heuristic value of models that generalize behaviors and structures across cultures is considerable. These models authenticate the biblical presentation of an emergent monarchy, and...

Judges

Judges   Reference library

Susan Niditch and Susan Niditch

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,739 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... inhabitants of the land ( see Albright 1939 ; Bright 1981 ). In this model, the confederation or league served to organize and rally the conquering army. 3. Theories about Israelite nomadism have been strongly challenged in recent years and confidence in the conquest model has waned as the matches between biblical accounts of conquest and archaeological evidence have proven far less than perfect ( see Hayes and Miller 1977 ). More suited to the stories in Judges is the infiltration model that suggests that Israelites gradually moved into the land and that...

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in
          History

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in History   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ways of resisting this growing corruption and instead was advised to retreat quietly into his own personal world of religious thought. 60 It was only after this disillusionment with the leading ulama that al-Banna began to organize his own activist (and association dedicated to strengthening Islamic faith and practice. The failure of the old-style ulama to provide any real alternative to the secular intellectuals in the nineteenth and early twentieth...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

Paul Hoftijzer

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,047 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...first and foremost to combat piracy, but gradually took on other tasks as well, such as the regulation and improvement of the trade, the compilation of an annual bibliography of newly published books, the publication of a trade journal ( Nieuwsblad voor den boekhandel ), the organizing of trade fairs, and even the provision of a professional library and documentation centre in Amsterdam (the present Library of the *Royal Netherlands Book Trade Association (KVB). A prominent role in these activities was played by the Amsterdam publisher and antiquarian...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

Eugenia Roldán Vera

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,881 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...political activity, legislation, and literary work played a disproportionate role in shaping local book production. Among the new types of publication were accounts of the wars of independence, personal apologias for political histories, discussions about the best way to organize the new countries, and literary works about the nature of America and about the ideal of pan-American unity. A Mexican, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier, a Cuban, José María de Heredia, and a Chilean, Andrés Bello, were among the prominent members of a group of writers who produced...

Rethinking Islam Today

Rethinking Islam Today   Reference library

Mohamed Arkoun

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,624 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that all the transcendent divine Truth has been delivered to mankind by the Revelation and concretely realized by the Prophet through historical initiatives in Medina. There is, then, a definite model of perfect historical action for mankind, not only for Muslims. All groups at any time and in any social and cultural environment are bound to go back to this model in order to achieve the spirit and the perfection shown by the Prophet, his companions, and the first generation of Muslims called the pious ancestors ( al-salaf al-salih ). This...

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus   Reference library

Terence L. Donaldson

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
25,035 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...experience represented a much more decisive shift, a more sharply demarcated before and after ( cf. Phil 3:4–11 ), than was ever the case with an Isaiah or a Jeremiah. While Paul continued to worship and serve the same God, his framework of service shifted decisively from one organizing centre (Torah) to another (Christ). What term to use, then, for this decisive shift? One alternative is to return to ‘conversion’, redefining it so that both continuity and discontinuity are preserved ( Segal 1990 ). Such an approach can claim support from more recent...

Jeremiah

Jeremiah   Reference library

Kathleen M. O'Connor and Kathleen M. O'Connor

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...: 82; DeRoche 1983 ; Carroll 1986 ). Study of the literary devices of direct address, grammatical gender of characters, and the nature of divine accusations reveals strong literary coherence in the material. The broken marriage of YHWH and his unfaithful wife serves as an organizing or root metaphor ( Ricoeur 1975 , 1976 ; McFague 1982) that closely unites the chapters ( Diamond and O'Connor 1996 ; Brueggemann 1988 : 46–7 ). In its present form, 2:1–4:2 dramatizes the ending of the marriage ( 2:1–3:5 ) and depicts its aftermath of recrimination and...

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