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oral cultures

1. Societies based on orality, the term being typically applied to those having no written literature and in which intergenerational cultural transmission of values, ...

oral cultures

oral cultures   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
126 words

... cultures 1. Societies based on orality , the term being typically applied to those having no written literature and in which intergenerational cultural transmission of values , attitudes , and beliefs is by word of mouth (including through myths ); see also cultural reproduction ; traditional transmission . Theorists such as McLuhan and Ong have stressed fundamental differences between oral and literate cultures , including different patterns of thought ( see great divide theories ). Critics stressing social and ideological factors argue...

oral cultures

oral cultures  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. Societies based on orality, the term being typically applied to those having no written literature and in which intergenerational cultural transmission of values, attitudes, and beliefs is by word ...
Orality and Oral Culture

Orality and Oral Culture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,445 words

... and Oral Culture Modern thinking about orality and oral culture depends on the celebrated work of Milman Parry and Albert Lord , whose influence has made it difficult to recover earlier judgments. The argument began in the context of European education in Latin and Greek studies, which exposed small educated classes in Europe to Virgil and Horace and to the theory of the mot juste in poetic and prosaic expression. Yet Homer remained the font of poetic creativity. In fact, nothing was known of early conditions of Greek literacy or even what might be...

Oral Culture: Literacy, Religion, Performance

Oral Culture: Literacy, Religion, Performance   Reference library

Cara Anne Kinnally

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...of oral culture for Latina/os in the colonial period, but also the vitality and longevity of the various expressive and creative forms of oral culture that emerged during and following the conquest in Latin America. Oral culture has been and continues to be both a ubiquitous and malleable form of expression in Latina/o cultures. It maintains traditions, as seen in the corrido or the Afro-Latina/o use of “drum writing,” but it often contests the traditions of the dominant culture. It can be used as a form of oppression, as exemplified through the use of oral...

Orality and Oral Culture

Orality and Oral Culture  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Modern thinking about orality and oral culture depends on the celebrated work of Milman Parry and Albert Lord, whose influence has made it difficult to recover earlier judgments. The argument ...
2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

Carl Olson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...apparent and easy to discern. Scholarly commentaries are necessary to elicit a hymn’s meaning. Within the history of Indian culture, there is a long tradition of textual commentary and interpretation by learned individuals. The revealed and remembered bodies of literature originated within the cultural context of an oral tradition, which means that the hymns of the Vedas were passed down from one generation to the next via oral transmission after the particular hymns were memorized. In this sense, much of Indian classical literature is related to memory,...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,654 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the 21st century, however, is also to recognize the degree to which current understanding of popular culture in the British Isles is now seriously fragmented. Most fundamental, perhaps, are underlying differences in approach and stress. At one extreme is the museum‐led ethnological emphasis (especially in Celtic countries) that stems from the chronologically late survival within those regions of traditional cultures of work—both material and oral—and consequently an intellectual sensitivity to localized rural resources and contexts. At the other extreme...

Liberation Theology: Africa and the Bible

Liberation Theology: Africa and the Bible   Reference library

Gerald West

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...or within elaborate doctrinal statements and formal preaching styles.’ When Africans did encounter the Bible it was from the perspective of cultures steeped in oral tradition. From this perspective the concept of religion and religious power circumscribed by a book was ‘at first frightful and absurd, thereafter … awesome and fascinating’. As illiterate peoples with rich, well-established, and elaborate oral traditions, the majority of the first African slaves were suspicious of and usually rejected ‘Book Religion’. However, as Wimbush notes, ‘it did not...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of background, one is struck by how the cultural experiences and expressions of all three mark a confluence-point where orality and print, canonical literary works and street genres, combined and exchanged in complex ways. According to his Autobiographical Fragments ( 1821–8 ) John Clare regarded Helpstone as an ‘unlettered’ village, yet there he was able to nourish his imagination on a rich pabulum of both print and orality. As well as the standard village staples of the Bible, *hymns , weekly *newspapers , and *almanacs , he frequently listened...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of theft, to suppose that culture belonged to the upper orders and merely trickled down to the people, if it reached them at all. While Ritson in at least one passage doubts the credentials of Macpherson's Ossian, he tends to brush off, as a diversion, the charges of forgery levelled against Macpherson and Chatterton: they had merely performed ‘experiments on the public taste’. If anyone was a thief, said Ritson (in a private letter, leaked by his opponents), it was this ‘lying cleric’, Percy, who edited and altered oral culture for consumption by the polite...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Andrew Vlies

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,292 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

..., Literary Culture in Colonial Ghana (2002) — ed., Readings in African Popular Fiction (2002) — West African Literatures (2006) J. Opland , ‘The Image of the Book in Xhosa Oral Poetry’, in Oral Literature and Performance in Southern Africa , ed. D. Brown (1999) A. Ricard , The Languages and Literatures of Africa , tr. N. Morgan (2004) A. H. Smith , The Spread of Printing: South Africa (1971) A. van der Vlies , ed., ‘Histories of the Book in Southern Africa’: English Studies in Africa , 47.1 (2004) — South African Textual Cultures (2007) B. A....

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books   Reference library

Emile G. L. Schrijver

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,005 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...hostile destruction of Jewish books, and most probably also of the prominence of the oral tradition within Judaism, which may have been responsible for a general reluctance to write down religious texts. It was exactly during these dark days of textual transmission that the so-called Masoretes ( see masorah ) developed detailed systems of vowel and *diacritic signs that were meant to counter the threat of faulty copying that existed in the Jews’ largely oral culture. The systems, of which various forms exist, were included in later bible *codices and...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

Geoffrey Roper

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,249 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...period. Arabic literature (mainly poetry) was then transmitted almost entirely orally. The written language of the period has survived only in the form of inscriptions on stone ( see epigraphy ), but there are a few tantalizing references in early Arabic poetry to writing on palm-bark and *parchment , and the use of *reed pens. Arabia also accommodated communities of Jews and Christians with a scriptural tradition in which some Arabs participated. Thus, book culture was not completely alien to pre-Islamic Arabs, even though they have left no...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... Specimens of a Dialect of the Aborigines of New South Wales ); and scripture texts and *primers for Aboriginals on mission stations. Penny van Toorn has pointed out that categorizing Aboriginal culture as ‘oral’ and European as ‘literate’ is oversimplistic, privileging European concepts of what writing is and does over other sign systems. Aboriginal culture inscribed meanings on message-sticks, as well as on rocks, bark, human bodies, clothing, and ritual objects. The first monograph on an Aboriginal artist. The Bread and Cheese Club’s leading spirit...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on Shakespeare and * Milton . These lectures were, of course, ‘oral’ performances in a predominantly ‘print’ culture, but their quasi-academic format, as well as wide publicity among the *newspapers and periodicals, made them a key form of contemporary prose media. The other great innovation in media during this period was the new-style literary ‘review’, inaugurated in 1802 by the lawyer-journalists of the Edinburgh Review . By professionalizing the practices of periodical print culture, the Scottish reviewers changed the scope and relation of...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the marginal lands in particular (Highlands, Borders), where the king's arm reached but weakly, clan‐type societies persisted up to the end of the 18th century. In the Highlands it was primarily an oral culture, and a Gaelic one too , and the family historians were the sennachies who recited the genealogies of clan chiefs, as their equivalents in other oral cultures have done in many parts of the world. Gaeldom has its fair share of second sight, ghouls, and ghosties, plus a liberal helping of Celtic twilight—in all, too much for most Scottish...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...trades, and earn a great deal of money, and bring up their families very well, without even knowing how to read’. Yet oral and literary cultures were in no way definitively cut off from each other. Books could be read aloud to groups, as proclamations often were in public places, while *ballads from the oral tradition could draw on printed sources, themselves often collected from itinerant singers. *Popular culture [23] took both oral and printed forms throughout the period. Attitudes to whether mass literacy was desirable or not varied greatly,...

Rethinking Islam Today

Rethinking Islam Today   Reference library

Mohamed Arkoun

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,624 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to some extent. It generated a civilization of written culture opposed to, or differentiated from, the oral civilization. The key to the Societies of the Book is thus the intensive dialectic developed everywhere between two strongly competitive forces: On the one hand, there is the state using the phenomenon of the Book in its two dimensions—the transcendent, divine, ontological message and the written literature and culture derived from it. This comprises the official culture produced and used under the ideological supervision of the...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

Eugenia Roldán Vera

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,881 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...to the priests the sins they had committed. On the other hand, Indians also chose to use the roman alphabet to put down in indigenous languages information that had been previously orally transmitted in their cultures; the best examples of such texts come from the Maya region. The Popol Vuh , a history of the Mayan people (allegedly based on ancient codices and oral tradition), was secretly recorded ( c .1550 ) in Mayan language but in roman alphabet by Indians who had attended Spanish missionary schools. Mayan priests followed a similar strategy in...

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand   Reference library

Shef Rogers

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from New South Wales) visited in the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries. Christian missionaries brought books and printing presses to provide religious works for the Maori; they made strenuous efforts to establish a written form of the Maori language and to record Maori oral culture in print ( see 9 ). By 1815 , the Church Missionary Society (CMS) had produced a Maori *grammar and Maori *primers , printed in London and Sydney. In 1830 , at the Kerikeri Wesleyan settlement, the Revd William Yate printed Maori hymn sheets and a six-page Maori ...

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