Update

You are looking at 1-20 of 272 entries  for:

  • All: optimism bias x
clear all

View:

Overview

optimism bias

The tendency for people to be optimistic about future events, especially those seen as following from their own plans and actions. Although optimism is no doubt a stimulus to enterprise, ...

optimism bias

optimism bias   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
97 words

... bias The tendency for people to be optimistic about future events, especially those seen as following from their own plans and actions. Although optimism is no doubt a stimulus to enterprise, it has obvious dangers: these include increased risk taking, failure to estimate probabilities accurately, and inadequate contingency planning. In drawing up plans, schedules, and budgets there is a demonstrated tendency for managers to underestimate costs and duration and to overestimate benefits. This being so, there is now an explicit requirement for those...

optimism bias

optimism bias   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
125 words

... bias The tendency for people to be optimistic about future events, especially those seen as following from their own plans and actions. Studies have suggested that this is a universal cognitive bias, possibly with a biological origin. Although optimism may be a stimulus to enterprise, it has obvious dangers: these include increased risk taking (including neglect of basic precautions), failure to estimate probabilities accurately, and inadequate contingency planning. In drawing up plans, schedules, and budgets there is a demonstrated tendency for managers...

optimism bias

optimism bias  

The tendency for people to be optimistic about future events, especially those seen as following from their own plans and actions. Although optimism is no doubt a stimulus to enterprise, it has ...
Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... was first published in 1798 as a polemical response to William *Godwin and the Marquis de Condorcet's post-revolutionary optimism about individual and social perfectibility. Revised in 1803 , and over the whole war and postwar period, Malthus 's Essay became the first major work since the Wealth of Nations to express and address these social and economic problems. Conventional contrasts between Smithian optimism and Malthusian pessimism fail, however, to capture the shift of focus, though Malthus did succeed in overturning an...

Job

Job   Reference library

James L. Crenshaw and James L. Crenshaw

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...poetry. A story begins, only to be interrupted by poetry that fashions a story within a story, and then resumes so as to bring closure. The prologue evokes dialogue, and the epilogue terminates it, at the same time suppressing the voice within the poetry that rejects the kind of optimism represented by Job's friends and by Proverbs. A story that opens in heaven concludes on earth, where the principle of do ut des (‘I give in order to receive’) is still alive and well. Viewpoints collide everywhere, and the one source of a definitive answer dodges the issue...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Terence E. Fretheim and Terence E. Fretheim

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
29,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to the new generation) seek to assist Israel in its faithfulness through new orderings of a community confronted with many of the same issues. Many signs of hope will surface, not least the complete absence of death notices. But this picture dare not contribute to undue optimism. Deut 28–31 will make it clear that this new generation will be no more faithful than the old and will experience many of the same failures and consequences ( see Deut 29:22–8; 31:20–9 ). On parallels between Num 1–25 and 26–36, see Olson ( 1996 : 158–9) . Characteristic of ...

Hofstadter's law

Hofstadter's law  

The adage that a task will always take longer than expected, even when Hofstadter's law is taken into account. The law is therefore endlessly recursive. Although often taken facetiously, the law ...
strategic misrepresentation

strategic misrepresentation  

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus distinct from ...
planning fallacy

planning fallacy  

The demonstrated tendency for people to underestimate the length of time it will take them to complete a task. Various explanations have been offered, including optimism bias, failure to allow for ...
unrealistic optimism

unrealistic optimism  

A judgemental bias that tends to affect people's subjective estimates of the likelihood of future events in their lives, causing them to overestimate the likelihood of positive or desirable events ...
depressive realism

depressive realism  

A reduction or absence of unrealistic optimism and the overconfidence effect in a person with depression, depressed people being characteristically (across situations and domains) more accurate in ...
Lake Wobegon effect

Lake Wobegon effect  

A tendency for most people to believe that they are above average in intelligence, sense of humour, diving ability, and similar traits. Although the effect arises from a self-serving bias, the ...
overconfidence effect

overconfidence effect  

Unwarranted belief in the correctness of one's judgements or beliefs. Many studies have used general knowledge quiz questions to which respondents give answers and also confidence ratings indicating ...
Voice from the South

Voice from the South  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A. Published during the period now known as the Woman's Era, Anna Julia Cooper's A Voice from the South (1892) is a landmark feminist text. In this volume of essays and lectures, Cooper argues that ...
strategic misrepresentation

strategic misrepresentation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
75 words

...misrepresentation In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus distinct from optimism bias or simple miscalculation. Those who adopt such a policy would probably justify it as an expected part of the negotiation ‘game’ and argue that many worthwhile projects would never get approval if the true costs were revealed at the...

strategic misrepresentation

strategic misrepresentation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
78 words

...misrepresentation In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus distinct from optimism bias , planning fallacy , or simple miscalculation. Those who adopt such a policy would probably justify it as an expected part of the negotiation ‘game’ and argue that many worthwhile projects would never get approval if the true costs were revealed at the...

Hofstadter’s law

Hofstadter’s law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
85 words

...endlessly recursive. Although often taken facetiously, the law makes the serious point that something unexpected is very likely to occur in the completion of any complex task, no matter how carefully one plans. It is therefore a good antidote to planning fallacy and optimism bias . The law is named after the US academic Douglas Hofstadter ( 1945–...

depressive realism

depressive realism n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...realism n. A reduction or absence of unrealistic optimism and the overconfidence effect in a person with depression , depressed people being characteristically (across situations and domains) more accurate in their processing of information related to themselves and non-depressed people being characteristically positively biased. The concept was introduced in 1979 in an article by the US psychologists Lauren B(ersh) Alloy (born 1953 ) and Lyn Y(vonne) Abramson (born 1950 ) in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General . See also ...

planning fallacy

planning fallacy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
159 words

...fallacy The demonstrated tendency for people to underestimate the length of time it will take them to complete a task. Various explanations have been offered, including optimism bias , failure to allow for extraneous factors such as sickness etc., and the wish to make a good impression when submitting plans for approval. One counterintuitive finding of studies in this area is that the more detailed and specific the plan, the more likely it is to be seriously over-optimistic. This is perhaps because detailed planning (i) encourages people to suppose...

Lake Wobegon effect

Lake Wobegon effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...privately published reports in 1987 and 1988 , commenting on the fact that all 50 US states reported elementary school results above the national average. Also called the Lake Wobegon fallacy . Also (mis)spelt Lake Woebegon and Lake Woebegone . Compare unrealistic optimism . [Alluding to Lake Wobegon, ‘a place where all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average’ in a radio show entitled A Prairie Home Companion , created and hosted by the US writer Garrison Keillor (born 1942 ) and described in...

View: