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off-site archaeology

Subject: Archaeology

[Th] A model of regional archaeological structure proposed by Robert Foley in 1978 that questions the idea that human behaviour is spatially confined to what archaeologists refer ...

off‐site archaeology

off‐site archaeology ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
67 words

...‐site archaeology [Th] A model of regional archaeological structure proposed by Robert Foley in 1978 that questions the idea that human behaviour is spatially confined to what archaeologists refer to as ‘sites’. His basic hypothesis, widely accepted, is that due to a number of factors the archaeological record is spatially continuous and that its structure may be described in terms of variable artefact density across a...

off-site archaeology

off-site archaeology  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Th]A model of regional archaeological structure proposed by Robert Foley in 1978 that questions the idea that human behaviour is spatially confined to what archaeologists refer to as ‘sites’. His ...
Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Barraclough , Steelmaking before Bessemer (2 vols, The Metals Society, 1984). Michael Rix , Industrial Archaeology ( 1967 ), defined the subject as the ‘recording, preserving in selected cases and interpreting the sites and structures of early industrial activity, particularly the monuments of the Industrial Revolution’. The journal Industrial Archaeology Review , founded in 1976 , endorsed this view, but Arthur Raistrick , Industrial Archaeology ( 1972 ), argued against the emphasis on the Industrial Revolution and promoted the idea that the subject...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Wexford, Wicklow). Inventories of archaeological heritage have also been published for Carlow, Dublin, Kerry, Kildare, Laois, Meath, and Tipperary. The successful launch of an illustrated magazine, Archaeology Ireland , in 1987 marked this new popular awareness of archaeology. This was signalled also in the heritage industry, which moved to ‘interpret’ spectacular excavated sites like the fossilized landscape under the peat bog at Céide Fields in Mayo, Newgrange, and the bog trackways at Corlea in Longford. Archaeological theme parks have been built at...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 850–1050 , at a time when pagan ideas were still flourishing; the siting of at least some of these local churches may therefore have been a deliberate act of conversion of a place that had already been regarded as holy for centuries. The popularity of St Michael dedications speaks of the battle to replace pagan beliefs. He had many attributes, but was generally portrayed in medieval art fighting the Devil, often on a hilltop, most dramatically at Skellig Michael, an early monastic site off the south‐west coast of Ireland. In the dioceses of Hereford and...

Landscape History: The Countryside

Landscape History: The Countryside   Quick reference

H. S. A. Fox

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...used by people from quite far afield long before the 13th century, seasonally occupied sites perhaps preceding permanent settlement. The same may be said of many moorland regions colonized at about the same time as Arden; examples include settlements on Bodmin Moor with the Cornish element havos (‘summer dwelling’) in their names, and sites in the significantly named Newlands Valley in the Lake District, where several farm‐names contain the element skali (‘temporary site’). Nor should we think of these relatively new settlements as particularly prone to...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...2000 ). The application of archaeological techniques to the surviving fabric of country houses is another recent development which promises to expand our understanding of individual buildings and to modify some of the conclusions drawn by architectural historians on the basis of stylistic evidence alone. So far the results have been published mainly in academic journals, such as the pioneering studies by Paul Drury of Hill Hall and Audley End, both in Essex, but the monographs by Pamela Marshall , Wollaton Hall: An Archaeological Survey ( 1996 ), and by ...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sites which later became Roman and medieval towns (e.g. Colchester and St Albans). The first true towns, however, are usually taken to be those created by the Romans after ad 43 . Nearly a hundred towns have now been identified in Roman Britain , the most privileged being chartered towns called coloniae or municipia , but the great majority described as vici ; vicus was a broad term which could apply to a town or a village and which was used for most of the tribal capitals. These, however, were legal terms; in physical terms, using archaeological...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...history, archaeology, heraldry, painting, music, and natural history. The country parish where they lived was the focal point for much of this multifarious activity. The major Victorian figure in the distinguished line of scholar–parsons who were interested in all aspects of their parish was Canon J. C. Atkinson , the incumbent of Danby on the North York Moors from 1847 to 1900 . Atkinson calculated that he had walked over 70 000 miles in the course of his clerical duty. During these long walks he developed his keen powers of observation. Cut off from other...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... took over in an advisory capacity. Large-scale manufacturers combined bespoke with off-the-peg production in businesses which encompassed a range of different skills. From their premises in Soho, Mayhew and Ince acted as cabinet-makers, carvers, upholders (upholsterers), plate glass manufacturers, and even auctioneers. The largest furniture-making firm in London in the last quarter of the eighteenth century, George Seddon , squeezed most of the trades involved onto one site in Alders-gate, employing some 400 men by 1786 , ranging from carvers, joiners, and...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,036 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of 16 741 bound volumes of correspondence between guardians and the central administration, covering the period 1834–1901 . See Paul Carter (ed.), Bradford Poor Law Union: Papers and Correspondence with the Poor Law Commission, October 1834 to January 1839 (Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series, 157 (2004). At present, this national collection of letters, reports, and memorandums is poorly listed, but the TNA Nineteenth‐Century Poverty in England and Wales Project has made a start on the Southwell Union records with the cooperation of...

History

History   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,067 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in 1819: The Politics of Literary Culture and the Case of Romantic Historicism , Chicago, 1996; Collingwood, R. G. , The Idea of History , Oxford, 1946; Culler, A. D. , The Victorian Mirror of History , New Haven, Conn., 1985; Foucault, M. , The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences , New York, 1970; Gearhart, S. , The Open Boundary Between History and Fiction: A Critical Approach to the French Enlightenment , Princeton, NJ, 1984; Koselleck, R. , Futures Past: On the Semantics of Historical Time , Cambridge, 1985; Meinecke,...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

Paul Hoftijzer

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,047 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...3 1701–1900 4 The modern era 1 The Roman period to the Middle Ages The region that is now roughly The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, and the upper part of northwestern France first came into contact with written culture during the Roman period (1 st –4 th century ad ). Archaeological evidence is scarce, but certainly in larger Gallo-Roman settlements, writing for administrative, commercial, and educational purposes appears to have been used on a regular basis. How much of this practice survived the onslaught of the Migration Period is uncertain, but by...

Yubetsu

Yubetsu  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[CP]A late Palaeolithic tradition of obsidian working in Japan dating from c.11 000 bc; also known as the Shirataki technique after the type‐site at Shirataki‐Hattoridai, Japan. The method of working ...
Anangula Island, Alaska, USA

Anangula Island, Alaska, USA  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]Cliff‐top coastal settlement site of Palaeo‐Arctic communities on an islet off the coast of Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutians. The site was occupied from before 7000 bc down to c.5000 bc. ...
Maes Howe Group

Maes Howe Group  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[CP]A regional group of developed passage graves defined by Audrey Henshall. Centred on Orkney in the far north of Scotland, the group is named after the type‐site of Maes Howe. About twelve examples ...
Hengistbury Head, Dorset, England

Hengistbury Head, Dorset, England  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]A substantial promontory sandwiched between Christchurch Harbour and Bournemouth Bay on the coast of central southern England that was a major trading port in later prehistoric times. Excavations ...
planning frame

planning frame  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Eq]A square or rectangular chassis, typically 1 m by 1 m internally, that is used on archaeological sites to assist with accurately planning features, objects, or structures. The chassis comprises ...
plane table

plane table  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Eq]A portable drawing board mounted horizontally on a tripod and used for surveying sites and earthworks by constructing a map directly onto paper or film attached to the board. With the board ...
marine and underwater archaeology

marine and underwater archaeology  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Humankind's artefacts litter the seabed, partly as a result of mercantile and naval activities, but also because landscapes have become submerged. This submergence is not only the result of the sea ...

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