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Overview

ocularcentrism

A perceptual and epistemological bias ranking vision over other senses in Western cultures. An example would be a preference for the written word rather than the spoken word (in which ...

ocularcentrism

ocularcentrism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
128 words

... A mode of apprehending the world that emphasizes vision and phenomena perceptible to the human eye. Science can be said to be ocularcentric because it is deeply committed to observation as a means of registering the real and testing hypotheses. The same can be said of geography, both physical and human, because its raison d’être is to describe, explain, and (sometimes) predict the arrangement of phenomena on the surface of the Earth. A number of feminist geographers , among others, have criticized this ocularcentrism because it has allowed...

ocularcentrism

ocularcentrism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
147 words

... ( Greek visualism ) A perceptual and epistemological bias ranking vision over other senses in Western cultures . An example would be a preference for the written word rather than the spoken word (in which case, it would be the opposite of phonocentrism ). Both Plato and Aristotle gave primacy to sight and associated it with reason. We say that ‘seeing is believing’, ‘see for yourself’, and ‘I’ll believe it when I see it with my own eyes’. When we understand we say, ‘I see’. We ‘see eye to eye’ when we agree. We imagine situations ‘in...

ocularcentrism

ocularcentrism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A perceptual and epistemological bias ranking vision over other senses in Western cultures. An example would be a preference for the written word rather than the spoken word (in which case, it would ...
sense ratio

sense ratio  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
McLuhan's metaphor for the relative dominance of the various human senses within the human ‘sensorium’. He argued that different media extend different senses, and their ‘interiorization’ transforms ...
visual imperative

visual imperative  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
The notion that the visual dimension of culture is becoming increasingly dominant, and that spectacle and display are dominating cultural forms. See also aestheticization; image; ocularcentrism; ...
visualism

visualism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. Most broadly, a bias in favour of that which can be seen.2. For Greek visualism, see ocularcentrism.3. (hegemonic visualism) The dominance of postmodern culture by visual media, stimulated by new ...
scriptism

scriptism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A bias in which writing is privileged over speech. In many literate cultures, text has a higher status than speech: written language is often seen as the standard. McLuhan, using a coinage of the ...
visuality

visuality  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. The condition of visualness.2. Vision as a social construction and/or the social world as a visual construction: see also constructionism.3. A system of visual meanings transcending particular ...
visual culture

visual culture  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
Visual forms and practices within a society, including those of everyday life, popular culture, and high culture, together with the processes of production and consumption or reception associated ...
unconscious bias

unconscious bias  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
Any distortion of experience by an observer or reporter of which they are not themselves aware. This includes the processes of unintentional selectivity and transformation involved in perception, ...
visual imperative

visual imperative   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
43 words

...imperative The notion that the visual dimension of culture is becoming increasingly dominant, and that spectacle and display are dominating cultural forms . See also aestheticization ; image ; ocularcentrism ; pseudo-event ; publicity model ; sensationalism ; spectacularization ; visual consumption ; visual culture ; visualism ; visual turn . ...

visualism

visualism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
56 words

...1. Most broadly, a bias in favour of that which can be seen. 2. For Greek visualism , see ocularcentrism . 3. ( hegemonic visualism ) The dominance of postmodern culture by visual media, stimulated by new technologies of image production and dissemination: see also aestheticization ; spectacle ; spectacularization ; surveillance ; visual imperative . ...

visual culture

visual culture   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
85 words

...culture , together with the processes of production and consumption or reception associated with them. This includes all visual media (visual art, photography, film , television , posters, etc.). See also aestheticization ; codes of looking ; flâneur ; gaze ; ocularcentrism ; picture perception ; spectacularization ; surveillance ; visual anthropology ; visual consumption ; visual imperative ; visualism ; visuality ; visual merchandizing ; visual practices ; visual semiotics . http://www.citrinitas.com/history_of_viscom/ History of visual...

sense ratio

sense ratio   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
79 words

...of the various human senses within the human ‘sensorium’. He argues that different media extend different senses, and their ‘interiorization’ transforms mental processes. He phonocentrically romanticizes oral cultures , arguing that writing and printing led to an ocularcentrism which disrupted what he regards as the natural balance of the senses. However, electronic media restore this balance by ‘stimulating all the senses simultaneously’. See also McLuhanism . ...

visuality

visuality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
105 words

... discourse , the role of vision within an epistemological regime: in its ascendancy, the objectifying and subjectifying power of vision within the ‘scopic’ regime of modernity , based on optics, linear perspective , and Cartesian rationality: see also gaze ; ocularcentrism ; panopticon ; spectacle ; surveillance . 5. The relation between seeing, knowing, visual representation , and power . 6. A synonym for visualism . ...

scriptism

scriptism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
131 words

... unconscious bias which he regards as ‘the psychological effect of literacy ’. It reflects a scriptist bias to refer, as many scholars do, to ‘oral literature’, or to any semiotic systems, written or not, as a text . Scriptism is closely associated with ocularcentrism . Ong comments that ‘Because we have by today so deeply interiorized writing, made it so much a part of ourselves…we find it difficult to consider writing to be a technology .’ Compare logocentrism ; phonocentrism . ...

unconscious bias

unconscious bias   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
186 words

...renders such cultural bias transparent to them ( see also connotation ; ethnocentrism ; exnomination ; gender bias ; homophily ; in-group ; institutional bias ; interviewer bias ; laterality ; male entitlement ; male norm ; news values ; observer bias ; ocularcentrism ; phonocentrism ; proximity ; reading direction ; scriptism ; taken-for-grantedness ; white entitlement and privilege ). Our preferences and habits are a largely unconscious bias. The term implicit bias is widely used synonymously, though it can also refer to a ...

observation

observation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
167 words

... through a mix of empirical verification and falsification . Observation is part of human geographers’ modus operandi , not least because geography is the study of visible phenomena on or near the Earth’s surface. However, the reliance on vision involved ( see ocularcentrism ) has been criticized by some because, they argue, it creates a problematic distance between the observer and the observed. While this distance is supposed to ensure objectivity , critics claim that it can lead to misunderstanding because of a failure to engage with or get...

Asian Americanist Critique and Listening Practices of Contemporary Popular Music

Asian Americanist Critique and Listening Practices of Contemporary Popular Music   Reference library

Summer Kim Lee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...works of artist and philosopher Adrian Piper, Fred Moten asks, “How do sound and its reproduction allow and disturb the frame or boundary of the visual?” 73 Given the primacy of the visual, or the ocularcentrism of racism, which Piper calls “the ‘visual pathology’ of racist categorization,” Moten states, “ Sound gives us back the visuality that ocularcentrism had repressed .” 74 This is to say, then, that within a study attuned to sound, sound itself does not supplant or erase the visual. Instead, sound disrupts visuality—the codified ways one recognizes...

Haptic Aesthetics

Haptic Aesthetics   Reference library

Laura Marks

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,808 words

...transcendence, and to value touch as not only a form of knowledge but also a model of subjectivity in which self and other are inextricable. Nietzsche’s emphasis on “flair,” or an olfactory form of knowledge, bears mention here. Such approaches contributed to the critique of ocularcentrism in modern Western thought, analyzed by Martin Jay, Jonathan Crary, and David Michael Kleinberg-Levin, among many others. One source of haptic aesthetics is the twentieth-century revival of a minor conception of mimesis, understood not as imitation of an ideal but as an...

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