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neutralized States

‘A neutralised state is a state whose independence and integrity are for all future time guaranteed by treaty, on condition that such state binds itself not to enter into military ...

neutralized States

neutralized States   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
132 words

... States ‘A neutralised state is a state whose independence and integrity are for all future time guaranteed by treaty, on condition that such state binds itself not to enter into military alliances (except for defence against attack) and not to enter into such international obligations as could indirectly involve it in war’: I Oppenheim 319 . While some authorities found up to three European States (Switzerland, Belgium, and Luxembourg) to be neutralized (Lawrence, The Principles of International Law (5th ed.), 598–601), the common examples given...

neutralized States

neutralized States  

Reference type:
Overview Page
‘A neutralised state is a state whose independence and integrity are for all future time guaranteed by treaty, on condition that such state binds itself not to enter into military ...
On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World   Reference library

Heba Raouf Ezzat

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is crucial and has been developing for quite a while. Here we stress that dominant religious opinions play a crucial role in dis-encouraging women from participating in politics, seeing it in a nutshell as a business for men only. The focus has been—at best—on neutralizing religion in the discourse on women's political participation. Sometimes formal religious opinions have been issued to support a more serious participation of women in the public sphere and in politics, only to face counter religious opinions from groups that oppose that participation...

2 Esdras

2 Esdras   Reference library

Peter Hayman and Peter Hayman

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,631 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the pessimism he expresses elsewhere in statements such as that in 5:55 . ( 3:24–7 ) Ezra now introduces the theme of Zion and its fate which is to play an important role in the book as a focus for his complaints. Again the point is made that each new initiative by God is neutralized by humanity's sin. v. 26 parallels v. 21 . Ezra is saying that since God had not dealt with the root of the problem, then failure was inevitable. At v. 27 we reach the supposed author's own time, the Babylonian exile. The real, rather than the implied, readers can draw...

Amos

Amos   Reference library

Jennifer M. Dines and Jennifer M. Dines

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,215 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... The rhetorical question leads the addressees to condemn their own actions ( cf. 5:14; 9:10 ): Israelites (the inclusive ‘people of Israel’ occurs for the first time) stand accused of corrupting nazirites and silencing prophets (the two groups are linked only here), i.e. neutralizing potential saviours. Nazirites are not mentioned again; prophets are central to chs. 3 and 7 . vv. 13–16 , YHWH's verdict, expected since v. 6 , is of a new kind: instead of fire, an obscure picture involving a wagon. The verb (NRSV: press down) may mean ‘tremble’ or...

Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt

Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt   Reference library

Amy-Jill Levine

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of Philippi in Thrace. Antony assumed responsibility for the eastern provinces. Within a year, two Jewish delegations complained at separate times to Antony about their local governors, Phasael and Herod. But Herod, who had been a supporter of Cassius, not only managed to neutralize the charges by appealing directly to Antony; he and his brother consolidated their positions when the new ruler, acting against the wishes of a substantial delegation of Jewish leaders, named them tetrarchs of Judea. Antony, Phasael, and Herod were at least momentarily...

Between Alexandria and Antioch: Jews and Judaism in the Hellenistic Period

Between Alexandria and Antioch: Jews and Judaism in the Hellenistic Period   Reference library

Leonard J. Greenspoon

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,478 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...that housed foreign soldiers and civilians as well as Menelaus and his supporters. Lysias, who now controlled the Seleucid empire in the name of Antiochus IV's young son Antiochus V, recognized that Judah was still a force to be reckoned with, but calculated that he could neutralize this force by deposing the increasingly unpopular and ineffectual Menelaus as high priest. In his place Lysias arranged for the appointment of Alcimus (his name in Greek; Yaqim was its Semitic version), who had a reputation for personal piety that contrasted favorably with...

Goodhart's Law

Goodhart's Law   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Law . States that the pursuit by a monetary authority of any monetary target renders it completely meaningless for the purpose for which it is sought. It uses the assumption that once a government reveals the basis upon which it measures money supply, attempts will be made to neutralize the controlling effects that might...

acid

acid   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
53 words

...According to the Brønsted–Lowry theory, a substance that in solution liberates hydrogen ions or protons. The Lewis theory states that it is a substance that acts as an electron-pair acceptor. An acid reacts with a base to give a salt and water (neutralization), and has a pH of less than...

base

base   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
63 words

...1. According to the Brønsted–Lowry theory, a substance that in solution can bind and remove hydrogen ions or protons. The Lewis theory states that it is a substance that acts as an electron-pair donor. A base reacts with an acid to give a salt and water (a process called neutralization) and has a pH greater than 7. 2. See base pair...

acid

acid   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
52 words

... According to the Brønsted–Lowry theory, a substance that in solution liberates hydrogen ions (protons). The Lewis theory states that it is a substance that acts as an electron-pair acceptor. An acid reacts with a base to give a salt and water (neutralization), and has a pH of less than...

base

base   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Lowry in Cambridge, who were working independently of one another), a substance that in solution can bind and remove hydrogen ions or protons. The Lewis theory (proposed by G. N. Lewis , also in 1923 ) states that it is a substance that acts as an electron-pair donor. A base reacts with an acid to give a salt and water (a process called neutralization), and has a pH greater than...

acid

acid   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and T. M. Lowry in Cambridge, who were working independently of one another), a substance that in solution liberates hydrogen ions or protons. The Lewis theory (proposed by G. N. Lewis , also in 1923 ) states that it is a substance that acts as an electron-pair acceptor. An acid reacts with a base to give a salt and water (neutralization), and has a pH of less than...

base

base   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...According to the Brønsted–Lowry theory, a substance that in solution can bind and remove hydrogen ions or protons. The Lewis theory states that it is a substance that acts as an electron-pair donor. A base reacts with an acid to give a salt and water (a process called neutralization), and has a pH greater than 7.0. The theory was proposed in 1923 by the Danish physical chemist Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted ( 1879–1947 ) and the British chemist Thomas Martin Lowry ( 1874–1936 ), and independently by the American theoretical chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis...

acid

acid   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...According to the Brønsted–Lowry theory, a substance that in solution liberates hydrogen ions or protons. The Lewis theory states that an acid is a substance that acts as an electron-pair acceptor. An acid reacts with a base to give a salt and water (neutralization), and has a pH of less than 7.0. The theory was proposed in 1923 by the Danish physical chemist Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted (1879–1947) and the British chemist Thomas Martin Lowry (1874–1936), and independently by the American theoretical chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis...

Pāvikā

Pāvikā  

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Music

...finger’. Besides the blowing hole, there were five holes for five notes. It was considered an improvement over the pāvā used in folk music. Tarlekar, in his study of instruments, states that it had seven holes, not five, for seven notes, and that there was a belief that the evil influences or curses of nāga (snake) and yakṣha (a mythical celestial being) could be neutralized by playing the pāvikā in a specified...

Faraday’s laws of electrolysis

Faraday’s laws of electrolysis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...of electrolysis. The first law states that the mass of a given element liberated during electrolysis is directly proportional to the magnitude of the steady current consumed during the electrolysis and to the time for which the current passes. The second law states that when the same quantity of electricity is passed through different electrolytes, the masses of the different substances liberated are directly proportional to the masses of the substances that require one mole of electrons (1 faraday) for neutralization. The transfer of 1 mole of electrons...

Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939

Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...against each other. The secret protocols of the treaty provided for spheres of influence in Eastern Europe and a pledge by each signatory not to interfere should the other choose to invade and conquer one or more of the states assigned to its influence. The Nazi-Soviet Pact appears to have had two major outcomes: it effectively neutralized the Soviet Union long enough for Germany to attack and defeat Poland, Czechoslovakia, Norway, France, and the Low Countries, and it lulled Stalin into complacency and led to his failure to prepare the Soviet Union for the...

Cartier, George-Étienne

Cartier, George-Étienne   Reference library

Brian Young

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
212 words

...Quebec's civil law, and in dismantling seigneurialism in favour of a freehold land system. In 1864 , he became attorney general in the coalition that negotiated federalism in Charlottetown and Quebec. He was key in manoeuvring French Canada into Confederation and in neutralizing liberal opposition to the project in Quebec; he also facilitated the entry of British Columbia and Manitoba into Confederation. Associated with liberal Catholicism in Quebec, he was a lifelong opponent of ultramontanist Catholic ideology. Ruined by the Pacific Scandal , he...

Spry, Graham

Spry, Graham   Reference library

Robert E. Babe

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
249 words

...the Canadian Forum , which he purchased for one dollar in 1935 , rescuing that periodical from bankruptcy. In 1948 Spry was appointed agent general for Saskatchewan in Britain; among other activities while in that office he recruited medical personnel from England to help neutralize the 1962 doctors' strike opposing the introduction of provincial medicare . Robert E....

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