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Overview

neuroplasticity

(neural plasticity) n. the ability of the brain to develop new neurons and/or new synapses in response to stimulation and learning. Recent research shows that the brain retains its ...

neuroplasticity

neuroplasticity n.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
68 words

... ( neural plasticity ) n. the ability of the brain to develop new neurons and/or new synapses in response to stimulation and learning. Recent research shows that the brain retains its plasticity throughout life, more or less, depending on the person’s state of health, etc. Following injury to the brain, neuroplasticity may allow uninjured areas to take over the processes previously carried out by the injured...

neuroplasticity

neuroplasticity noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
53 words
neuroplasticity

neuroplasticity noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
57 words
neuroplasticity

neuroplasticity  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(neural plasticity) n. the ability of the brain to develop new neurons and/or new synapses in response to stimulation and learning. Recent research shows that the brain retains its plasticity ...
Braille

Braille   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
232 words
Illustration(s):
1

...at the age of 3 and at 10 became a student at the Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles in Paris, where he was later appointed a professor. It has recently been found that there is activation of the visual area V1 during Braille reading. This has implications for the neuroplasticity of the brain. Would V1 become active with meaningless (as for an unknown language) Braille? The answer is not yet known but is being studied. Fig. 1. A Braille alphabet. Redrawn from J. Robin, Louis Braille (1960). Burton, H. , Synder, A. Z. , Diamond, J. B. , and ...

meditation, neurocognitive approaches

meditation, neurocognitive approaches   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,558 words

...these first‐person accounts can be defined, identified, and interpreted more easily by the experimentalist. These hypotheses appear particularly relevant in relation to three neuroscientific agendas: neuroplasticity, the interaction of mind and body, and the possibility of neural counterparts to subjective experience. 2. Transforming the mind and neuroplasticity In the Buddhist tradition, emotions, attention, and introspection are viewed as ongoing and labile processes to be understood and studied as skills that can be trained, similar to other human domains...

Steroids and Plasticity

Steroids and Plasticity   Reference library

Alyssa L. Pedersen and Colin J. Saldanha

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Medicine and health, Science and technology
Length:
6,975 words

...neuroplasticity, including neurogenesis and morphological changes in circuit connectivity. Next, we will describe functional changes due to the steroid-dependent restructuring of the CNS. This includes data on how sex steroids modulate cognition via alteration of neural structure, and this finding has implications for cognitive processing, memory, social behavior, and sensorimotor integration. We focus on work conducted in teleosts, birds, and mammals in an attempt to underscore both the pervasive nature of steroid-dependent neuroplasticity and the...

Stress and Neuroimmunology

Stress and Neuroimmunology   Reference library

Eric S. Wohleb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Medicine and health, Science and technology
Length:
13,910 words

...receptor P2RY12, which is exclusively expressed by microglia in the brain ( Eyo et al., 2014 ). Of note, microglia lacking P2RY12 expression have impaired neuroplasticity in the visual cortex that influences ocular dominance ( Sipe et al., 2016 ). This work suggested that neuron-derived nucleotides have an instructive role for microglial processes, and these interactions influence neuroplasticity. To this point, studies in mice demonstrated that microglial morphology and surveillance are “restricted” by increased levels of NE in wakeful states. In...

Bilingual Effects on Cognition in Children

Bilingual Effects on Cognition in Children   Reference library

Ellen Bialystok

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,474 words

...for this research because of the relation between the details of bilingual experience and aspects of cognitive processing that are hypothesized. The possibility that bilingualism can modify cognitive and brain systems is part of a larger theoretical perspective called neuroplasticity . The notion that there is continued adaptability of brain structures in response to experience has been understood for animals for a long time ( Hebb, 1949 ), but evidence that the same principles applied to humans, especially in adulthood, is a recent discovery (...

Habit

Habit   Reference library

Aron Vinegar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,316 words

...property, and ownership to take hold. It is hardly surprising that one of the first self-help books, Maxwell Maltz’s Psycho-Cybernetics ( 1960 ), has a chapter titled “You Can Acquire the Habit of Happiness,” that habit specialists work for large corporations, or that neuroplasticity is now a featured component of advertising for improving intelligence through brain exercises. But if habit is indelibly marked by automaticity and an “unthought” dimension, which resists incorporation by the “I,” then surely it is not merely and wholly recoverable as the...

Cognitive Reserve in the Aging Brain

Cognitive Reserve in the Aging Brain   Reference library

Michael J. Valenzuela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
13,344 words
Illustration(s):
4

...( Kuiper et al., 2015 ). This area of research is still relatively new, and so more research is needed to better pinpoint what aspect of our social lives, which are extraordinarily complex, may be particularly protective against dementia. Mechanisms of Cognitive Reserve Neuroplasticity in Animal Models of Enrichment. Cognitive reserve benefits from a >50-year history of neuroscience research in the environmental enrichment (EE) paradigm. In principle, this is a simple intervention that moves rodents from their standard housing condition into enriched...

Sexual Behavior in Males From a Neuroendocrine Perspective

Sexual Behavior in Males From a Neuroendocrine Perspective   Reference library

Jacques Balthazart and Gregory F. Ball

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Systems

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Medicine and health, Science and technology
Length:
15,215 words
Illustration(s):
5

...is actually broader: The more sensitive techniques such as in situ hybridization have shown that many additional brain areas contain cells expressing these receptors at low densities. Sex steroids action in the brain is related to the control of various functions, including neuroplasticity, cognition, tumor growth, and behavior. Therefore, only subsets of the sex steroids binding sites in the brain are implicated in the control of male sexual behavior. These sites have been identified by a combination of lesion experiments and of stereotaxic implantation of...

Physical Activity and Inactivity Impacts on Cognitive and Emotional Functioning in Later Life

Physical Activity and Inactivity Impacts on Cognitive and Emotional Functioning in Later Life   Reference library

Patrick D. Gajewski and Michael Falkenstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
13,138 words

...neurons that are produced in the hippocampal formation, while challenging cognitive training increases the numbers that survive. Ballesteros et al. ( 2015 ) provides a comprehensive overview of theories of cognitive aging and neuroplasticity and different methods such as PA, CT, dancing, and social engagement to enhance neuroplasticity in older age. Indeed, it has been found in a couple of studies that the combination of physical and cognitive training appears to yield larger effects on cognition in older adults than physical or cognitive training alone ( Bamidis...

Surgical Performance from a Psychological Perspective

Surgical Performance from a Psychological Perspective   Reference library

Aidan Moran, Nick Sevdalis, and Lauren Wallace

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Guillot ( 2014 ) concluded that the brain changes that occur during mental practice of a given motor skill tend to mimic closely those that occur after physical practice of the same skill. More recently, Avanzino et al. ( 2015 ) found that motor imagery training induces neuroplasticity in the motor cortex. Complementing the preceding neuroscientific findings, there is also evidence of functional equivalence between imagined and actual motor processes at a behavioral level. The logic here is as follows. If imagined and executed actions rely on similar motor...

Economics and Genetics

Economics and Genetics   Reference library

Jason M. Fletcher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,651 words

...in rates to estimate their impact, Fletcher ( 2012 ) examined the interaction of a single nicotinic receptor and state-level tobacco taxes to predict tobacco use and found evidence of interaction. Cook and Fletcher ( 2015b ) used three genetic variants to create a “neuroplasticity score,” showing that this score interacted with birth weight to predict adult IQ and wages using a sibling-difference design (i.e., the genetic lottery approach). Cook and Fletcher ( 2015a ) argued that the APOE gene variant, which increases the risk for cognitive decline...

Thing

Thing   Reference library

Woosung Kang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Literary Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
10,810 words

..., several heterogeneous, often conflicting theoretical stances could be included in this nonhuman turn to materiality, such as Bruno Latour’s actor-network theory, affect theory on unconscious life forces, Manuel DeLanda’s assemblage theory, Catherine Malabou’s concept of neuro-plasticity, Jane Bennet’s arguments about vital materialism, new media theory on the dynamics of digital realities, the speculative realism of Levi Bryant and Quentin Meillassoux, and Graham Harman’s object-oriented ontology. Richard Grusin, ed., The Nonhuman Turn (Minneapolis:...

Cognition and Mobility With Aging

Cognition and Mobility With Aging   Reference library

Karen Z. H. Li, Halina Bruce, and Rachel Downey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
6,709 words

...serves a compensatory purpose and is associated with better cognitive performance. Ultimately, if cognitive capacity and, more specifically, executive functioning, plays a role in older adults’ motor performance, cognitive remediation to increase this capacity and trigger neuroplasticity in relevant brain regions may offer a promising avenue of rehabilitation or prevention. Gait and Cognition in Aging Definitions and Measurement. Gait can be defined as a bipedal, forward movement of the body that offsets one’s center of pressure. An extensive number of...

Neurocognitive Aging and Functional Connectivity Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Neurocognitive Aging and Functional Connectivity Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging   Reference library

Hana Burianová

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
8,204 words

...networks are mediated by a myriad of factors, but converging evidence demonstrates that healthy aging is associated with decreases in FC in large-scale networks that subserve higher level cognition, while FC in sensorimotor and posterior networks often increases with age. Such neuroplastic functional changes are commonly accompanied by reduced neural specificity, impaired inhibitory control, and compensatory neural recruitment. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of aging and facilitate effective strategies for cognitive improvement, future studies...

Alternative Conceptions of Adolescence as a Basis for Curriculum

Alternative Conceptions of Adolescence as a Basis for Curriculum   Reference library

Nancy Lesko, Jacqueline Simmons, and Jamie Uva

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
6,567 words

...technologies mirrors historical attempts to simply reinscribe old boundaries with the aim of controlling and “managing” youth. And while ever more advanced studies of adolescent brains suggest new understandings of brain and behavior correlations, and a long-lived neuroplasticity, they also effectively position youth as inferior to adults, solidifying the border between them (e.g., Steinberg, 2007 ; Tyborowska, Volman, Smeekens, Toni, & Roelofs, 2016 ). Recent research and economics suggest that adolescence starts younger (earlier onset of...

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis and Political Life

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis and Political Life   Reference library

Marco Verweij and Antonio Damasio

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Political Decision Making

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,827 words

...Science , 4 (6), 533–550. Keysers, C. , & Gazzola, V. (2009). Expanding the mirror: Vicarious activity for actions, emotions, and sensations . Current Opinion in Neurobiology , 19 (6), 666–671. Kitayama, S. , Park, J. , & Cho, Y. (2015). Culture and neuroplasticity. In M. Gelfand , C. Chiu , & Y. Hong (Eds.), Handbook of advances in culture and psychology (pp. 38–99). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Knight, F. (1921). Risk, uncertainty and profit . Boston, MA: Hart, Schaffner and Marx. Koenigs, M. , Young, L. , Adolphs...

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