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neighbour principle

Subject: Law

A principle developed by Lord Atkin in the famous case of Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562 (HL Sc) (Snail in the Bottle case) to establish when a duty of care might arise. The principle ...

neighbour principle

neighbour principle   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Law
Length:
102 words

... principle A principle developed by Lord Atkin in the famous case of Donoghue v Stevenson [ 1932 ] AC 562 (HL Sc) (Snail in the Bottle case) to establish when a duty of care might arise. The principle is that one must take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions that could reasonably be foreseen as likely to injure one’s neighbour. A neighbour was identified as someone who was so closely and directly affected by the act that one ought to have them in contemplation as being so affected when directing one’s mind to the acts or omissions in...

neighbour principle

neighbour principle   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
102 words

... principle A principle developed by Lord Atkin in the famous case of Donoghue v Stevenson [ 1932 ] AC 562 (HL Sc) (Snail in the Bottle case) to establish when a duty of care might arise. The principle is that one must take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions that could reasonably be foreseen as likely to injure one's neighbour. A neighbour was identified as someone who was so closely and directly affected by the act that one ought to have them in contemplation as being so affected when directing one's mind to the acts or omissions in...

neighbour principle

neighbour principle  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A principle developed by Lord Atkin in the famous case of Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562 (HL Sc) (Snail in the Bottle case) to establish when a duty of care might arise. The principle is that one ...
Islam vs. Marxism and Capitalism

Islam vs. Marxism and Capitalism   Reference library

Mustafā Mahmūd

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,177 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was old hat thirteen centuries ago in Islam. Islam came establishing, from the very beginning, the principle of equal opportunity, guaranteeing minimal needs to the individual and achieving a balance between the liberty of the individual to profit and the rights of society, the principle of private and public property (private and public sectors), the principle of state interference in the economy—this is what we call today a directed economy—the principle of confiscating the wealth of exploiters for the benefit of the poor and the oppressed. Islam does not...

The Modernist Majority Report

The Modernist Majority Report   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,627 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the educational system and the recasting of laws and the judicial system to fulfill the aspirations of a free and expanding life. But Pakistan, at its very inception, was faced with problems of sheer existence and self-preservation. Ugly situations created by the hostility of neighbors and economic chaos, for which Pakistan was not responsible, made the country concentrate its energies on problems of sheer subsistence, leaving little mental or material resources for educational reconstruction and legal and judicial reform. The work of legal and judicial reform...

The Downhill Path and Defense, Not Surrender

The Downhill Path and Defense, Not Surrender   Reference library

Rusmir Mahmutćehajić

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,835 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...are possible, so that chaos may be interrupted by principled autocracy, which is always less evil than the dangers of demagogy. 5. As for Bosnia and its neighbors, a somewhat primitive principled autocracy in communist Yugoslavia was followed by formal democracy—a transition phase before the establishing of unprincipled autocracies in Belgrade and Zagreb, whose course was one of obvious degeneration into dictatorship and demagogy. Their...

Socialism and Islam

Socialism and Islam   Reference library

Shaykh Mahmūd Shaltūt

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,849 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...them above themselves, though they are in want” ( 59:9 ). . . . Social Solidarity Among Muslims Social solidarity among Muslims is of two kinds—the moral and the material. Moral solidarity derives from two factors. The first is recognizing good and virtue and inviting one's neighbor to conform to it with sincerity and fidelity. “You are the noblest nation that has ever been raised up for mankind. You enjoin justice and forbid evil. You believe in Allah” (Qur'ān 3:106) . The second allows one to hear the Word of God and receive it with gratitude and acknowledgment...

Polish Family Names

Polish Family Names   Reference library

Aleksandra Cieślikowa and Paweł Swoboda

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
2,377 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...US owe their existence there to successive waves of immigration from the late 18th century onward. In the 1830s and 1860s many Poles, some of them members of the nobility, who had rebelled against the occupying regimes during the long years when Poland was partitioned among its neighbors (Russia, Prussia, and Austria, 1795–1918), emigrated to the US. In the second half of the 19th century, Polish emigrants were mainly people from poorer regions of Poland who sought a better livelihood overseas—first peasants, and then also industrial workers. Approximately 4...

The Second Message of Islam

The Second Message of Islam   Reference library

Mahmoud Mohamed Taha

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,854 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...you the Reminder” means the whole of the Qur'an including the original principle— islam —as well as the subsidiary ( ‘iman ).“So that you may explain to mankind that which has been sent down to them” means to detail through legislation, and to explain, in various other ways, to the believers ( mu’minin ) what has been brought down to their level. “[T]hat they may reflect,” means that perhaps such reflection, while implementing the subsidiary principle, may lead them to the original principle they were unable to implement at the beginning. Here is a subtle...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...especially in the form of customary hospitality from lords at Christmas , wealthy urban neighbours at Midsummer , or farmers at sheep‐shearing or harvest. Other expressions of superior obligation included non‐prosecution for the appropriation by customary ‘right’ from private woodlands of trees or boughs for the construction of maypoles or summer bowers. At harvest the very poor could claim rights of gleaning off the land even of small‐farming neighbours. In post‐ Restoration times, finally, obligation was met through payments made by the spectators...

Matthew

Matthew   Reference library

Dale C. Allison, Jr. and Dale C. Allison, Jr.

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
49,867 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to love neighbour (which Akiba reportedly called ‘the greatest principle in the law’, Sipre Lev. 19:18; cf. Gal 5:14; Rom 13:8–10 ). Together they summarize the Decalogue (cf. Philo, Dec. 19–20, 50–1, 106–10, 121, 154). Jesus, although asked for the greatest commandment, answers with two which are inextricable. (‘A second is like it’ is purely numerical; the second commandment equals in importance the first.) But Matthew does not clarify how the two commandments to love relate to one another. Evagrius Ponticus argued that love of neighbour is love of...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was it too archaic. Campbell identified ‘reputable custom’ with the writing of the period after the *Glorious Revolution of 1688 and prior to any living author; Queen Anne 's reign was a more general favourite, but the underlying principle was common to most late-eighteenth-century writers on language. It was a principle given a particularly powerful and influential form in the middle of the century by Samuel *Johnson 's Dictionary of the English Language ( 1755 ). Johnson's use of literary illustrations implied that a native English tradition should...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in New Britain ( 1820 ). There only water is drunk with meals; each member of the population farms and has a trade; labour is confined to four hours daily, and is based upon a principle of ‘moderation and equity’. None possesses more land than is ‘requisite for comfortable subsistence’. Money and barter have been abolished; and labour and trade are governed by the principle that it is wrong ‘for a man to acquire all he can’. Machinery is widely used, but only where it decreases labour. Elected officials are unpaid; there is universal free education; and...

Proverbs

Proverbs   Reference library

K. T. Aitken and K. T Aitken

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,819 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...wicked for the body politic are summed up in v. 11 —making v. 10 self-evident. For the metaphor of the ‘tree of life’ ( v. 30 ) see prov 3:18 . Gossip . Those who speak disparagingly of a neighbour show a lack of sense ( v. 12 ), and those who betray his confidence a lack of trustworthiness ( v. 13 ). Both disrupt good relations between friends and neighbours, and as ‘whisperers’ are close companions of the perverse man who spreads strife ( 16:28 ). A gracious woman . In v. 16 the NRSV adopts the longer text of the LXX. The Hebrew text contains only...

“There Was No King in Israel”: The Era of the Judges

“There Was No King in Israel”: The Era of the Judges   Reference library

Jo Ann Hackett

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,677 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

... Israel's Neighbors in the Early Iron Age Iron Age Israel did not take shape in a vacuum. The Philistines and Phoenicians on the coast and the Transjordanian peoples to the east frequently appear in biblical sources, and so an understanding of these cultures contributes to a more complete picture of the period of the judges. The Philistines, Israel's southern coastal neighbors, have received particularly intense scholarly scrutiny, and recent...

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature   Reference library

Philip S. Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,106 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The formulation of the law, as throughout the Mishnah, is casuistic, i.e. concrete illustrations are given of a fundamental principle, which is not itself stated. Here the underlying principle (the kelal ) is clear: no one, even when acting within his own domain, has a right to cause a nuisance to a neighbour. These laws are not found in the Torah, but can be seen as an attempt to work out concretely the commandment to ‘love your neighbour as yourself’ ( Lev 19:18 ). On the Mishnah see maj gen b .11. 7. The Halakic Letter (4QMMT), B.52–62 + C.7–12: Disputes...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...new literary culture which was both old and self-consciously fashioned by figures such as Hone, Douce, Ritson, and Brand. Popular antiquarianism was part of a broader historical revival occurring in the third quarter of the eighteenth century within France's largest neighbours, in the German princely states as well as in Britain. Pre-modern nativist cultural forms threatened the modern cultural dominance of France and of francophile governing élites. The ground was laid for a major shift not just in literary fashion but in social attitudes and group...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and especially perhaps the last, take careful account of the variety of local conditions. Community studies offer one of the best ways of setting families in a larger context. It is above all the concern with such things as fertility, mortality, inheritance, links with kin and neighbours, and the continuity or disappearance of family lines, which distinguishes the best of recent community studies from older works of local history. They include (in order of the chronological span covered) Marjorie McIntosh , Autonomy and Community: The Royal Manor of Havering,...

Minorities in a Democracy

Minorities in a Democracy   Reference library

Humayun Kabir

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,430 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Theoretically, the State accepted one particular religion and the king was the defender of that faith. To some extent, this idea persists even today. Practice however differed sharply from theory. Normal men and women want to lead a life of cooperation and friendship with their neighbors and hence some kind of accommodation was established from very early times. That theory still lags behind practice is obvious, when we see that a kingdom like the United Kingdom—very progressive in many ways —still describes its ruler as the Defender of the Faith. A person who...

German Family Names

German Family Names   Reference library

Edda Gentry

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
6,303 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...extent that of the emerging urban culture (with its trade guilds and the widespread separation of labor between production and distribution). The inventory of family names was further enriched by the large group of the ever-popular personal surnames that were given to a “dear” neighbor because of conspicuous physical or mental traits (so-called characterizing or attributive names). Through these sorts of names, the bluntness of folk humor often becomes apparent. Among the oldest surnames are those designating places of residence or habitation, especially in...

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