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natural selection

A complex process in which the total environment determines which members of a species survive to reproduce and so pass on their genes to the next generation. This need not necessarily ...

natural selection

natural selection n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... selection n . The basic mechanism of evolution whereby those individuals in a population that are best adapted to the environment survive and produce more offspring than others, thereby altering the composition of the population and eventually the characteristics of the species . The term was introduced by the English naturalist Charles (Robert) Darwin ( 1809–82 ) in his book The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life ( 1859 ). See also apostatic selection , blind...

natural selection

natural selection   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
72 words

... selection the differential fecundity ( q.v. ) in nature between members of a species possessing adaptive characters and those without such advantages. See Appendix C , 1818, Wells; 1858, Darwin and Wallace; 1859, Darwin; 1934, 1937, L’Héritier and Teissier; 1952, Bradshaw; 1954, Allison; artificial selection, evolution, fundamental theorem of natural selection, heavy metals, selection. See adaptive melanism , artificial selection , Chaetodipus intermedius , Darwin’s finches , evolution , fundamental theorem of natural selection , heavy metals...

natural selection

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A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...natural selection The process that confers reproductive advantage on individuals with particular phenotypes so that there is an increase in the proportion of the population that has the alleles responsible for the phenotype. Darwin used the term in contrast to the ‘artificial selection’ practised by animal and plant breeders. http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_25 Evolution 101’s pages on natural selection...

natural selection

natural selection   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
29 words

... selection [Ge] The principle that the organisms which are best adapted to their environments will live to reproduce the most viable offspring. The primary mechanism of evolutionary...

natural selection

natural selection   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
45 words

... selection ( ‘survival of the fittest’ ) A complex process in which the total environment determines which members of a species survive to reproduce and so pass on their genes to the next generation. This need not necessarily involve a struggle between...

natural selection

natural selection   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... selection ( ‘survival of the fittest’ ) Complex process in which the total environment determines which members of a species survive to reproduce and so pass on their genes to the next generation. This need not necessarily involve a struggle between...

natural selection

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A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
47 words

... selection ( ‘survival of the fittest’ ) A complex process in which the total environment determines which members of a species survive to reproduce and so pass on their genes to the next generation. This need not necessarily involve a struggle between organisms....

Natural Selection

Natural Selection   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
825 words

...of evolution by natural selection. This in turn led to the discipline of theoretical population genetics, which lies at the heart of modern evolutionary theory. Despite these advances in mathematical sophistication, however, the basic concept of natural selection remains exactly as first explained by Darwin . Bibliography Darwin, Charles , On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859). Dawkins, Richard , The Extended Phenotype (Oxford, 1982). Fisher, Ronald Aylmer , The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (Oxford, 1930). Maynard...

natural selection

natural selection   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
112 words

... selection In evolution , theory that advantageous change in an organism tends to be passed on to successive generations. Changes arise out of natural genetic variation , especially mutation . Those that give an individual organism a greater capacity for survival and reproduction in a particular environment help it to produce more offspring bearing the same beneficial characteristic or trait. Thus white rabbits will survive better than brown ones in the snow. This theory was proposed by English naturalist Charles Darwin in his book The Origin of...

Natural Selection

Natural Selection   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of natural selection that natural selection alone will not be working to cause any long-term evolutionary results. The grand patterns of evolution do not contradict the theory of natural selection, but they cannot simply be deduced from it. A short-term study of HIV evolution, for example, can tell us how natural selection is working in those viruses, but we need to know about many other factors to understand long-term viral evolution. See Species Selection . Bell, G. Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution . New York, 1997a. A treatise on selection,...

natural selection

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A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
148 words

...natural selection The process that, according to Darwinism , brings about the evolution of new species of animals and plants. Both Darwin and Wallace noted that the size of any population tends to remain constant despite the fact that more offspring are produced than are needed to maintain it. They also saw that variations existed between individuals of the population and concluded that disease, competition, and other forces acting on the population eliminated those individuals less well adapted to their environment. The survivors would pass on any...

natural selection

natural selection   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
113 words

... selection the principle that the best competitors in any given population of organisms have the best chance of breeding success and thus of transmitting their characteristics to subsequent generations. The members of any population show individual differences – anatomical, physiological, or metabolic – that affect their functional efficiency in a given environment. The less efficient members tend to die out or produce fewer offspring than the more efficient members, which are better adapted to compete for food or other resources, and so produce relatively...

natural selection

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... selection ( ‘survival of the fittest’ ) A complex process in which the total environment determines which members of a species survive to reproduce and so pass on their genes to the next generation. This need not involve a struggle between organisms. Natural selection is not necessarily the only mechanism for evolution ( see neutrality theory of evolution...

natural selection

natural selection   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... selection ( ‘survival of the fittest’ ) The complex process in which the environment selects those traits that are passed from one generation of organisms to the next. Those individuals that possess variations which equip them to find food, shelter, mates, or other resources better than individuals that lack them will tend to produce more surviving offspring. Those offspring will inherit their parents’ advantageous traits and the traits will spread through the population. Over time, natural selection helps species become better adapted to their...

natural selection

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A Dictionary of Animal Behaviour (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
242 words

... selection The process by which * evolution of living organisms occurs. Evidence for evolution comes from the fossil record, comparison of present-day species, the geographical distribution of species, and some observations of evolution in action. The theory that evolution results from the process of natural selection is due to Charles * Darwin . The elements of Darwin's theory can be stated as follows: Within any population of organisms of the same species, there is considerable variation among individuals. Much of this variation has high *...

natural selection

natural selection   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...natural selection A central concept of evolutionary theory. Charles Darwin 's original theory and its modern modifications hold that biological, behavioral, and environmental conditions determine which members of a species will survive and pass on their genes to the next generation. Darwin demonstrated this by his observations of varieties of finches, moths, etc., that “adapted” to environments in which specific adaptations, such as colors of the moths' wings, gave the best prospects for survival. A modern demonstration is the development of antibiotic-resistant...

fundamental theorem of natural selection

fundamental theorem of natural selection   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
38 words

...theorem of natural selection a theorem developed by R. A. Fisher according to which the increase in fitness of a population at any given time is directly proportional to the genetic variance in fitness of its...

natural‐selection theory of immunity

natural‐selection theory of immunity   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
70 words

...‐selection theory of immunity or Jerne's theory of immunity a theory of antibody production that postulates the spontaneous presence, in the blood of an animal, of small numbers of antibody molecules against all antigens to which the animal can respond, and delegates to the antigen the sole role of carrying such specific globulin molecules from the bloodstream into cells in which these molecules can induce proliferation of a particular...

Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection

Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
1,388 words
Illustration(s):
1

...into the operation of natural selection. See also Fisher, Ronald Aylmer . Edwards, A. W. F. The fundamental theorem of natural selection . Biological Reviews 69 (1994): 443–474. Ewens, W. J. An interpretation and proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection . Theor. Pop. Biol. 36 (1989): 167–180. Fisher, R. A. The correlation between relatives on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance . Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh , 52 (1918): 399–433. Fisher, R. A. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection . Oxford: Clarendon...

natural selection

natural selection noun   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
21 words

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