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myth of the given

Subject: Philosophy

Name adopted by Sellars for the now widely-rejected view that sense experience gives us peculiar points of certainty, suitable to serve as foundations for the whole of empirical knowledge ...

myth of the given

myth of the given   Reference library

Stephen Priest

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
95 words

... of the given . Expression introduced by Wilfred Sellars to suggest there is no uninterpreted content of experience that is foundational in epistemology: e.g. Locke's ideas, Hume's impressions, the sense-data of the Logical Positivists. The myth of the given implies that facts can in principle be known non-inferentially. No non-inferentially known fact presupposes knowledge of any other fact or general truth. Such non-inferentially known facts are ultimately authoritative. The attack on the given is arguably anticipated by Vico and Kant . Mr Stephen...

myth of the given

myth of the given   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
125 words

... of the given Name adopted by Wilfrid Sellars for the now widely-rejected view that sense experience gives us peculiar points of certainty, suitable to serve as foundations for the whole of empirical knowledge and science. The idea is that empiricism , particularly in the hands of Locke and Hume , confuses moments of physical or causal impact on the senses with the arrival of individual points of certainty, so-called ‘sense data’ in the mind. This is a myth, because judgement is already involved in interpreting the flux of experience one way or another....

myth of the given

myth of the given  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Name adopted by Sellars for the now widely-rejected view that sense experience gives us peculiar points of certainty, suitable to serve as foundations for the whole of empirical knowledge and ...
Mythology

Mythology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,714 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the Hindus, that all European myths were of Hindu origin, and that ‘the fundamental and mysterious transactions of the history of their religion, in its rise and progress, took place’ in ancient Britain. In an elaborate account of the sacred geography of the ancient Hindus, Wilford even suggested that India had produced a second—or first?—Christ whose life and works closely resembled the protagonist of the Gospels. Wilford at least initially convinced many Anglican mythographers, but these were soon to regret their endorsement of his ‘discoveries’ given...

In the Beginning: The Earliest History

In the Beginning: The Earliest History   Reference library

Michael D. Coogan

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,305 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...variety of perspectives and details. As attempts to explain the origins of the world and the nature of the human condition, ancient myths are neither consistent nor systematic. They are, however, an important body of data that, like tools, pottery, fortifications, and other artifacts, shed light on historical development. The genesis of the natural and social order is usually expressed as the result of the activity of an individual deity, who presided over and coordinated the collective efforts of other gods and goddesses. The origins of this...

1700 to the Present

1700 to the Present   Reference library

Ronald Clements

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,692 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
18

...were to be accorded the same status as were now given to the conclusions of scientific observation and experiment. Since it was already a commonplace recognition of theology that the biblical writers had conveyed their messages and ideas through senses like our own, based on modes of understanding current at the time, the sharpness of the conflict that arose over Charles Darwin's thesis might have been ameliorated. Already by the middle of the eighteenth century the classical scholar C. G. Heyne (1729–1812) had introduced the term ‘myth’, drawn from its...

Rethinking Islam Today

Rethinking Islam Today   Reference library

Mohamed Arkoun

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,624 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...used the concept of social imaginaire and the related notions of myth, symbol, sign, or metaphor in the new meanings already mentioned. It refers constantly to reason as the faculty of true knowledge, differentiated from knowledge based on the representations of the imagination. The methodology elaborated and used by jurists-theologians shares with the Aristotelian tradition the same postulate of rationality as founding the true knowledge and excluding the constructions of the imagination. In fact, an analysis of the discourse produced by both trends of...

Liberation Theology: Europe

Liberation Theology: Europe   Reference library

Luise Schottroff and John Rogerson

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,737 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...delay of the parousia. ‘The kingdom of God is at hand’ ( Mark 1: 15 and parallels) is a promise of the nearness of God that encourages and strengthens those who believe. ‘Nearness’ is a relational term and cannot be pressed into a time scheme. Naturally the eschatology of the New Testament contains elements of an apocalyptic myth which, as myth, has not become untrue but is true in the sense that poetry expresses truth. Jürgen Ebach has developed an important social historical account of Jewish and Christian apocalyptic in the context of liberation theology...

1 Thessalonians

1 Thessalonians   Reference library

Philip F. Esler and Philip F. Esler

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,718 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of God—will come down from heaven and those who have died in Christ will rise first, then those who are living, who survive, will be snatched up together with them in the clouds to a meeting with the Lord in the air, so to be with the Lord for ever. Here we have a futurist myth derived partly from Israelite tradition but given a new slant in the context of the belief in Christ's death and resurrection which saw him exalted to the right hand of God ( Acts 2:33; Rom 8:34 ). The myth deals with Christ's descent (based on his preceding ascent to God) which...

Jewish Family Names

Jewish Family Names   Reference library

Alexander Beider

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
7,422 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to the US to work while retaining Israeli citizenship), the number of Jews from Israel who are regularly living in the US numbers in the hundreds of thousands. The Israeli Jews brought not only names created in the diaspora, but also new names created in the Land of Israel during the 20th century. All these names are Hebrew. Several categories of new names are patronymic. The first coincides with given names: Baruch , David , Hayyim , Meir , Moshe , Ovadia , Peretz , Yaakov , Yosef . The second is constructed after the pattern Ben (‘son of’) X ....

The Reinterpretation of Islam

The Reinterpretation of Islam   Reference library

Āsaf A. A. Fyzee

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,156 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...assumes importance. The law of God, it is said, cannot be disobeyed. This statement, it is respectfully submitted, requires careful re-examination. The Qur'ān may lay down a fundamental rule governing the actions of man; or it may speak of a particular by-law, restricted by time and circumstance, not laying down an eternal verity, or it may speak in the language of poetry, metaphor, myth or legend: He it is Who hath revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture wherein are clear revelations (muhkamāt)— They are the substance of the Book—and others...

The Crisis of the Arab Intellectual: Traditionalism or Historicism?

The Crisis of the Arab Intellectual: Traditionalism or Historicism?   Reference library

Laroui Abdallah

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,240 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is conscious of this retardation, the greater are his reponsibilities and the more frequent are temptations to escape into illusion and myth; the more a revolution must be all embracing, the more distant and improbable it seems. Such indeed is the situation of the Arab revolutionary. The various struggles for freedom—individual, communal, national—which the bourgeoisie of the national State nowhere forced to a conclusion, now devolve upon him. If things remain as they are today, the Arabs’ retardation, despite an ever increasing gross national product,...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

Andrew Robinson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,162 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...with each other around the Mediterranean. If so, then it is surprising that there is no evidence of trade and commerce in the early alphabetic inscriptions of Greece. This, and other considerations, have led a few scholars to postulate, controversially, that the Greek alphabet was invented to record the oral epics of Homer in the 8 th century bc . In the absence of proof, anecdote and myth have filled the vacuum. Children are often evoked as inventors of the alphabet, because they would not have had the preconceptions of adult writers and their elders’...

The Pastoral Epistles

The Pastoral Epistles   Reference library

Clare Drury and Clare Drury

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
16,198 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...support the thesis that some, at any rate, of his opponents were Jewish. ( 4:6–10 ) The rest of the chapter continues in the same tone; encouraging Timothy as a ‘good servant’ or ‘deacon’ to pass on to his fellow Christians the sound teaching he has received, while avoiding or rejecting the ‘profane myths and old wives’ tales' of the opposition. We are given little more information about the content of sound teaching or of its opposite. Presumably, both were well known to the recipients of the letter and did not need to be spelt out, but the false myths...

2 Peter

2 Peter   Reference library

Jeremy Duff and Jeremy Duff

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,865 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with escape from the corruption of the world shows that it is a future reference. Probatio Part 1 ( 1:16–21 ) The probatio (presentation of the case) has three sections: 1:16–21 forms the first. Peter gives two proofs that the message that Jesus will return ( v. 16 —his ‘power and coming’) is trustworthy. In doing so Peter cuts to the heart of the dispute because, as we have seen, this future event was central to Peter's understanding of the divine economy, but others denied that Jesus would return ( v. 16 —‘cleverly devised myths’; 3:4 ), and that...

Introduction to the Pentateuch

Introduction to the Pentateuch   Reference library

G. I. Davies

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
32,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of Gen 2–3 (J) in the exilic period. He sees these chapters as the end of a development which begins with a Babylonian myth about the creation of a king, dated to the seventh or sixth century: this, he argues, was the basis for Ezekiel's oracle against Tyre, which speaks of a mythical king who was once in the Garden of Eden but was expelled from it ( Ezek 28 ), and Gen 2–3 in turn was a transformation of this oracle to describe the creation and fall of mankind generally. Hence Gen 2–3 , and therefore J, would be later than Ezekiel. It remains possible,...

Genesis

Genesis   Reference library

R. N. Whybray and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35,219 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a place of ideal fertility and beauty. (It also occurs in Gen 4:16 as a place-name.) In Ezek 28:13–16 there is an allusion to a myth of an expulsion from the garden, but this differs markedly from Gen 2–3 . The two named trees in the garden—the tree of the knowledge of good and evil ( 2:9, 17 , and also, it must be presumed, the ‘tree that is in the middle of the garden’, 3:3; cf. 3:11, 12 ) and the tree of life ( 2:9; 3:22 ) constitute a puzzle in that the latter does not appear in the main story but only in the two verses mentioned above. The problem...

Judges

Judges   Reference library

Susan Niditch and Susan Niditch

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,739 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The tales of Israel's insurgency feature various heroes including Ehud the left-handed man; Deborah, the prophet, and her aide Barak; Jael the female assassin of the Canaanite general Sisera; Gideon, destroyer of the altar of the deity Baal, competing god of the Canaanite enemy; Jephthah whose only daughter becomes a war-vowed sacrifice to YHWH; and Samson the superhero of ancient Israelite tradition. Additional tales include the story of Abimelech, a would-be Israelite king, a Danite founding myth, and a fascinating tale of civil war that describes the ways...

Family History

Family History   Quick reference

Anthony Camp

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the chief obstacles to the completion of a pedigree, is the difficulty of obtaining the names of the wives’, produced the first of 233 volumes containing transcripts of the marriage registers of about 1,650 parishes, the success of the scheme owing much to his partner Thomas Matthews Blagg ( 1875–1948 ). The Society of Genealogists, founded in 1911 , made one of its principal objects the collection of printed, manuscript, and typescript copies of registers. Its work was given urgency by the Second World War, and there was impetus through the Committee...

Jude

Jude   Reference library

C. Rowland and C. Rowland

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,438 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...may note the slight doubt expressed by Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. 3.25.1). The writer describes himself simply as ‘a servant of Jesus Christ’, paralleling descriptions in Jas 1:1 and Rom 1:1 . The link with James gives support to attempts to link him with Jude the brother of Jesus and is a reminder of the importance of James within early Christianity before the fall of Jerusalem in 70 ce ( Acts 12:17; 15:13; Gal 2:9, 12 ). A case has been made for apostolic authorship of the letter which helps to explain why the letter was given authority within the early...

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