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Overview

mutual antagonism

A relationship in which the effect of competition between two or more species (interspecific competition) exceeds that of competition within each species (intraspecific competition).

mutual antagonism

mutual antagonism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... antagonism A relationship in which the effect of competition between two or more species (interspecific competition) exceeds that of competition within each species (intraspecific...

mutual antagonism

mutual antagonism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
26 words

... antagonism A relationship in which the effect of competition between two or more species (interspecific competition) exceeds that of competition within each species (intraspecific competition)....

mutual antagonism

mutual antagonism  

A relationship in which the effect of competition between two or more species (interspecific competition) exceeds that of competition within each species (intraspecific competition).
Dialogue Between East and West

Dialogue Between East and West   Reference library

Mohammad Khatami Ayatollah

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,648 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...hand, collectivism, which was launched vis-à-vis individualism, was formulated by multiplying the same concept of the individual, and therefore the two ideologies have the same philosophical foundation. For this reason we consider, from our position of spiritual wisdom, the antagonism between individualistic liberalism and collectivist socialism to be superficial and incidental. The concept of the person can be easily explained in terms of Islamic mysticism. The Islamic mystics consider man to be a world unto himself, a microcosm. Man's originality does not...

Tolerance and Governance: A Discourse on Religion and Democracy

Tolerance and Governance: A Discourse on Religion and Democracy   Reference library

Soroush Abdolkarim

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,536 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is neither a result of atheism nor an ally of it. Equating liberalism and democracy signifies, at once, great ignorance of the former and grave injustice toward the latter. The liberal democratic society has plural foundations. Its many bases, while not mutually conflicting, are far from being mutually indispensable. It is, therefore, logically possible to separate them. The idea of democratic religious society is a result of logical decoupling of democracy and liberalism. As such, it is analogous to the attempts of the social democrats to separate...

Religion and Liberty

Religion and Liberty   Reference library

Mehdi Bazargan

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,567 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...political and intellectual movement that triggered Europe's great leap forward was an essentially anti-religious, anti-church, and anti-clerical movement. We need to first explore the origins of the church's opposition to freedom. The question is whether this antagonism was due to particular doctrinal and historical circumstances or a result of universal properties of all religions at all times. The answer seems simple enough. Setting aside the question of the truth and authenticity of religion, it seems reasonable to expect that God who, by...

As You Like It

As You Like It   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,253 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... ( 1590 ), a prose tale interspersed with poems which had already reached its fourth edition in 1598 , although Shakespeare makes some telling alterations to this well-known pastoral romance. The play, for example, makes Lodge’s rival dukes into brothers (so that their antagonism parallels that between the hero and his eldest brother), and has the usurper spontaneously repent so as to permit the concluding restoration of the exiled court (enabled in Rosalynde only by a bloody battle in which the usurper dies). Shakespeare, moreover, changes all the...

Domesticity

Domesticity   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...lower gentry / middle classes and aristocracy as mutually beneficial: allowing social mobility for the gentry, and moral and financial regeneration for the aristocracy. In Pride and Prejudice ( 1813 ), for example, Elizabeth Bennett 's consciousness of Darcy 's ‘pride’ is represented as the ‘prejudice’ of intelligent lower-gentry female subjectivity, whilst Darcy personifies an unbecoming ‘pride’ in not wishing to marry down into the landless gentry. With the cancelling out of these traits, class antagonism is neutralized. In Persuasion ( 1817 ) Sir...

Ephesians

Ephesians   Reference library

J. D. G. Dunn and J. D. G. Dunn

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,129 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...body of his letter. Here, even though chs. 1–3 have been more prayer than exposition, the same practice is followed. Chs. 4–6 contain mostly instruction (1) on how Christians should understand their mutual interdependence as the church ( 4:1–16 ) and (2) how they should conduct themselves in their lives within the world ( 4:17–5:20 ), (3) in their mutual responsibilities as households ( 5:21–6:9 ), and (4) in their battle against spiritual forces ( 6:10–20 ). The exhortation begins with Paul's characteristic ‘I exhort you’ ( v. 1; cf. Rom 12:1; 1 Thess...

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns   Reference library

‘Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na‘im

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Shari‘a and Human Rights In [an earlier chapter] it was argued that the historical context within which shari‘a was constructed and applied by the early Muslims explained and justified its sanction of Muslim antagonism toward non-Muslims and its countenance of the use of force against them. By the same token, shari‘a 's position on what is known in modern terminology as human rights was also justified by the historical context. During the formative stages of shari‘a (and for the next...

James

James   Reference library

Rainer Riesner and Rainer Riesner

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,287 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...back to the war within human beings ( v. 1 ). For Christians prayer should precede all human aspirations ( v. 2 ), but even Jesus' promise on prayer ( Mt 7:7–8; Lk 11:9–10 ) can be misused ‘to spend what you get on your pleasures’ ( v. 3 ). ( 4:4–6 ) Grace to the Humble The antagonism between ‘friendship with the world’ and being an ‘enemy of God’ ( v. 4 ) is like the ethical dualism in the Enochic literature ( 1 Enoch 48:7; 108:8 ), Qumran ( Jub. 30:19–22 ), and 1 Jn 2:15–17 , but a parallel can also be found in the Jesus tradition ( Mt 6:24; Lk 16:13...

Between Alexandria and Antioch: Jews and Judaism in the Hellenistic Period

Between Alexandria and Antioch: Jews and Judaism in the Hellenistic Period   Reference library

Leonard J. Greenspoon

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,478 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...found it expedient to follow his father's policies toward the Jews. They had worked in achieving their twin goals of producing peace and revenue. If they also pleased Jewish religious sensibilities, all the better. But just below the surface lay pent-up rivalries and antagonisms among influential families in Jerusalem's leadership, all of which rose to the surface during the final year or so of Seleucus's rule and grew in severity during the kingship of his brother and successor, the infamous Antiochus IV Epiphanes. By this time Onias III had succeeded...

Ecclesiasticus, or The Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach

Ecclesiasticus, or The Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach   Reference library

John J. Collins and John J. Collins

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
38,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...or her reputation was at stake in friendship ( Smend 1906 : 202 ). Friendship for Sirach is grounded in mutual self-interest, and in this he is typical of the wisdom tradition. This cautious approach can legitimately be contrasted with the NT commandment to love one's enemies ( Skehan and DiLella 1987 : 317; Lk 6:27–38 ), but the same NT passage contains the maxim: ‘Do to others as you would have them do to you’ ( Lk 6:31 ). This suggests that mutual self-interest may none the less also have a part to play in Christian ethics. ( 22:27–23:27 ) Verbal and...

Genesis

Genesis   Reference library

R. N. Whybray and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35,219 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...children ( v. 26 ), Abraham, who was 175 when he died ( 25:7 ), would still have fifteen years to live, since he was 100 when Isaac was born ( 21:5 )! The two stories about the birth of Esau and Jacob ( vv. 21–6 ) and the birthright ( 25:27–34 ) both point forward to the later antagonism between the two and to the precedence of Jacob over his brother. The former story, which begins with YHWH's decree that the elder is to serve the younger, contains a pun on the name Jacob ( ya῾ăqōb ) who grasped the heel ( ᾽āqēb ) in the womb ( v. 26 ) and another on Esau, the...

reciprocal predation

reciprocal predation  

A variety of mutual antagonism in which two species each prey on the other.
reciprocal predation

reciprocal predation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...predation A variety of mutual antagonism in which two species each prey on the...

reciprocal predation

reciprocal predation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
17 words

...predation A variety of mutual antagonism in which two species each prey on the...

antagonism

antagonism   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
41 words

... 1 opposition; counteraction. 2 the mutual opposition of an agonist and an antagonist. 3 the interference with, or inhibition of, the growth of an organism by one of another kind, as by competing for nutrients or producing an antibiotic...

competitive antagonism

competitive antagonism   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
225 words

...antagonism the competition between an agonist and an antagonist for a receptor that occurs when the binding of agonist and antagonist is mutually exclusive. This may be because the agonist and antagonist compete for the same binding site, or combine with adjacent but overlapping sites. A third possibility is that different sites are involved but that they influence the receptor macromolecule in such a way that agonist and antagonist molecules cannot be bound at the same time. If the agonist and antagonist form only short‐lived combinations with the...

Interaction

Interaction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Interaction 1 . The interdependent, reciprocal, or mutual operation, action, or effect of two or more factors to produce, prevent, control, mediate, or otherwise influence the occurrence of an event. In a broad sense, a biological interaction involves a biological, physical, chemical, cellular, or physiological interdependent operation of two or more factors. 14 , 33 See also antagonism ; synergism . 2 . Differences in the effect measure for one factor at different levels of another factor. See also effect modification ; effect modifier...

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