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movable type

A printing system based on the use of separate elements to reproduce the individual symbols on a page. This technique was pioneered in China using ceramic pieces in the 11th century; the ...

movable type

movable type   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
50 words

... type An individual piece or set of pieces of type ( see fount ; sort ). The term is also used to describe the system of printing invented by *Gutenberg that uses type of this kind in contrast to such reproductive methods as *xylography or *digital composition . H. R....

movable type

movable type   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
188 words

... type A printing system based on the use of separate elements to reproduce the individual symbols on a page. This technique was pioneered in China using ceramic pieces in the 11th century; the first movable metal type was produced in Korea in the 13th century, where the first book using this method was printed in 1377. In Europe at this time, wood block printing had only just begun. Around 1450 Gutenberg created his own printing system, using a hand-operated printing press and metal movable type which could produce far more copies than woodblocks, with...

movable type

movable type  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A printing system based on the use of separate elements to reproduce the individual symbols on a page. This technique was pioneered in China using ceramic pieces in the 11th century; the first ...
41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Korean Printing’, 98). During the 13 th century, experiments with movable *type produced works that have since been lost, but are remembered because of the practice of recording printing information in colophons. From this period, three pieces of evidence survive for the use of movable metal type. One is a collection of Buddhist sermons entitled Nanmyŏng ch’ŏn hwasang song chŭngdoga , printed on Kanghwa Island in 1239 using blocks cut from a text originally printed using cast movable types. The colophon states: It is impossible to advance to the core of...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
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1

...the Japanese mission. In the aftermath of Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasion of Korea, where movable type had been in use since the 13 th century ( see 41 ), the Japanese regent brought back Korean printing materials in 1592 . As a result, the Emperor Goyōzei and Tokugawa Ieyasu published a number of books between 1593 and 1613 using both wooden and copper type ( see 42 ). Whether either of these two independent developments in the history of Japanese movable-type printing exerted any influence on the other remains unclear. After Japan closed her doors...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...in the 19 th century, this was the usual method of printing texts and pictures in China and neighbouring countries. In 12 th -century Korea, movable types reproducing Chinese characters were made from wooden patterns by casting with copper in sand ( see 41 ); such separate types continued in use to some extent in the East, but without displacing engraved woodblocks. The reasons for the very limited use of movable types in the East, compared with the rapidity of their adoption in the West, are complex. The high respect accorded to *calligraphy in China,...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...that a Malay bible in roman characters was in preparation, while a five-volume reprint of the entire Bible in Arabic was being undertaken for the lieutenant-governor of Java. The memorandum of 1816 claims that a Chinese Pentateuch was in the press, and that ‘the new moveable metal type, after many experiments, are a complete success’. The 1820 report records the printing of the New Testament in Pashto, and also the setting up of a paper factory: ‘After experiments lasting for twelve years, paper equally impervious to the worm with English paper, and of...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...the private printing of certain types of book had been rescinded, the concept of printing and distributing multiple copies of all kinds of text took hold. This stimulating environment encouraged the Song polymath Shen Gua to describe in detail the mid-11 th -century invention of printing with movable *type made of earthenware. He tells of a commoner named Bi Sheng , who during the Qingli reign ( 1041–8 ) made movable type of clay hardened in a kiln. He further explains each step of setting and levelling the type, and finally of printing. It is not...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...3 The technical invention 4 The physical appearance and textual content of early printed books 5 The contribution of the Church and religious orders 6 New aspects 7 Distribution 8 The Venetian success 9 Loss and survival 10 The outlook now 1 Introduction Printing with movable *type , a European invention of the mid-15 th century, revolutionized the making and use of books. The innovative nature of the invention and its implications were felt and discussed from the 15 th century onwards; however, a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,019 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...early print. After Gutenberg’s revolution, the various forms of book production—MS, block printing, or movable type—coexisted for almost two centuries with no readily apparent fitness of any one mode to survive the others. Ultimately, movable type outstripped both the MS and the block book for reasons which are obvious today but which, at the time, seemed its very weaknesses: standardization; the reorganization of the page to clearly defined zones of type, margin, and image; the inflexibility of its glossing and other annotation systems; the paring down of ...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...of years. Woodcuts were employed almost as soon as books began to be printed from movable type. It is now believed that *Schoeffer ’s *Mainz Psalter of 1457 was the first printed book in the West to contain woodcut decoration—remarkably, some of these cuts were printed in colour. It is possible, however, that the book’s colour initials were printed either directly from wood or, conceivably, from metal cast from wood, so that the Psalter could be viewed as a type of illustrated book. The earliest true woodcut-illustrated books seem to have been...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...impeded the development of Arabic typography, as compared with its European counterparts. Arabic printing with movable type originated in Italy in the early 16 th century. The first book was the Kitāb Ṣalāt al-Sawā‘ī ( *Book of Hours ), printed by the Venetian printer Gregorio de Gregorii at Fano (or possibly in Venice) in 1514 and sponsored by Pope Julius II for the use of Arab Melkite Christians in Lebanon and Syria. The type design is inelegant, and it was set in a clumsy, disjointed manner. Rather better was the typography of *Paganino , who...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...monogatari (Tale of the Heike) in romanized transcription: this was the first work of Japanese literature to appear in print. The Korean tradition of movable type ( see 41 ), which goes back to the 13 th century, does not seem to have been transmitted to Japan until force intervened: as a result of the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592–8 , printed books were looted and a printing press with *type was taken back to Japan and presented to Emperor Go-Yōzei. In 1593 , the press was immediately put to use to print a Chinese text, the Classic of Filial...

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...way for a revolution in the Islamic book world ( see 38 ). Lithographed books ideally fitted the traditional views on the art of book production, carefully preserving the form of MSS, while the newly available technique needed much lower capital investment than printing with movable type. The British missionary Walter Henry Medhurst ( 1796–1857 ) seems to have been the first person to use lithographic printing in maritime Southeast Asia. His lithographic press in Batavia (Jakarta) printed texts in Malay-Arabic, Javanese, and Chinese scripts. The Revd...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...in printing complicated music from movable type; the firm’s successor, *Breitkopf & Härtel , established in 1796 , remains one of the leading names in music publishing. Another Leipzig firm was Georg Joachim Göschen ( 1752–1828 ), whose most prominent authors were Schiller, Goethe, and Wieland. His Wieland edition, printed in roman instead of ‘monkish’ *Fraktur , failed to be the pioneering success it might have been because other printing houses considered it too expensive to re-equip themselves with roman types, and the public was too inured to...

15 Children’s Books

15 Children’s Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...books, whether on phonodisc (e.g. Ralph Mayhew’s Bubble Book series, 1917–22 ) or cassette (e.g. the 1990s Children’s Classics from the Stars series produced by Rabbit Ears Productions), or a compact disc (e.g. John Lithgow ’s 2004 The Carnival of the Animals ). In *movable and *pop-up book s mechanical illustrations use sophisticated paper-engineering in order to create the illusion of movement and passage of time, to metamorphose an image, or to reveal the differences between the insides and outsides of things and bodies. Almost anything can now...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Villon ( fl . 1450–63 )—represented a small percentage of the trade’s output. Yet more popular forms of printing appeared and spread in the shape of small *pamphlets printed in French in gothic type, ranging from current news to practical handbooks; many have not survived. Naturally, the political powers viewed the invention of printing with movable type with interest and encouraged it. There are signs that Heynlin was protected by Louis XI (r. 1461–83 ); the Italian campaigns of his son Charles VIII in 1495–8 (their spoils leading to the...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the technologies of book production in Britain advanced dramatically between 1800 and 1914 . Paper made by hand from rags gave way to paper made by *machine , and, later, from *esparto grass and, eventually, wood pulp as raw material ( see 10 ). The craft of setting movable *type by hand, which had changed little since *Caxton ’s time, was supplemented by making *stereotype (from the 1820s ) and later *electrotype (from the 1890s ) plates that captured whole pages at once. Yet *composition itself was not mechanized until the introduction of...

Chinese type

Chinese type  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The world’s first description of movable type refers to type made of baked clay by Bi Sheng in the 1040s (see 40). The oldest surviving works produced with type date ...
reglet

reglet  

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Overview Page
A strip of oil-soaked wood used when printing with movable type, placed between lines of letters to create interlinear spacing. Reglets are typically 3 4 in. high and vary in point size from 6- to ...

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