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Overview

more developed country

(MDC) A highly industrialized country that has high per capita incomes, low birth rates and death rates, low population growth rates, and high levels of industrialization and ...

more developed country

more developed country   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... developed country ( MDC ) A highly industrialized country that has high per capita incomes, low birth rates and death rates , low population growth rates, and high levels of industrialization and urbanization . Examples include the USA, Canada, Japan, and many countries in Europe. Contrast less developed country...

More Economically Developed Country

More Economically Developed Country   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
24 words

... Economically Developed Country (MEDC) A high-income or economically richer country; the term is generally applied to countries outside Asia, Africa, and Latin...

more economically developed country

more economically developed country   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... economically developed country ( MEDC ) A country with: low birth, death, and infant mortality rates (characteristically around 10; around 10; and under 12 per thousand, respectively); less than 10% of the workforce in agriculture; high levels of nutrition, secondary schooling, literacy, electricity consumption per head; and per capita GDP generally above $US2000. ‘Economically’ was included in this term some 30 years ago, to redress the perceptions of financially richer nations as more civilized, and more...

more developed country

more developed country  

(MDC)A highly industrialized country that has high per capita incomes, low birth rates and death rates, low population growth rates, and high levels of industrialization and urbanization. Examples ...
Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of books on the country house that it issued are a good indication of changing attitudes to the study of the subject in the present century. Under the general title of English Homes it published ten volumes ( 1921–37 ), written by H. Avray Tipping and covering the period between 1066 and 1820 , which were largely descriptive and lavishly presented in a format appropriate to the adornment of a gentleman's library. The second series, called English Country Houses , reflected the more seriously historical approach which had developed in the period after...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Ekaterina Rogatchevskaia and Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,024 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...started receiving *legal deposit copies. By 1912 , it had more than 10,000 titles, a large number of *incunabula and early printed books, and more than 100 MSS, but the holdings suffered severely from the occupying Austrian troops in 1918 . In 1946 the Public Central Library was created at Cetinje, and given its current name in 1964 . The library’s major published work was Crnogorska bibliografija 1494–1994 , a national bibliography. 6 Macedonia Macedonian book culture developed under Bulgarian, Serbian, and Byzantine influence, reflecting the...

Nationalism and Islam

Nationalism and Islam   Reference library

Abū-L-‘Alā’ Mawdūdī

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,763 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...other principles and theories. But a more direct conflict between nationalism and the Sharī‘as of God occurs in yet another way. It is obvious that whatever messenger is sent by God, he must take birth in some nation and in some country. Again, the Book of Laws which he would be given must necessarily be in the language of the country to which he has been deputed. Moreover, the sacred and holy places associated with the mission of that Rasūl [messenger, prophet] must be situated mostly in that particular country. But in spite of these limitations the...

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand   Reference library

Shef Rogers

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...merged with a complementary printing firm to create Rogan McIndoe. Another significant literary publisher, Pegasus Press ( 1947–86 ), issued more than 100 volumes of poetry, as well as seven of Janet Frame’s novels, and was one of the first New Zealand firms to secure international joint publication agreements and translation *rights for its authors. Four university presses, all established since 1960 , have developed, in addition to their academic titles, specializations in New Zealand poetry, fiction, history, or natural history. They all subsidize these...

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World   Reference library

Heba Raouf Ezzat

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...bodies, ignoring the well established fact that they are not representative and that even if few women have more seats and occupy more offices within them, this would have little impact on the lives and the participation of the majority of women unless a wider democratic transformation takes place. If democracy is the end goal and women's liberation from injustice and discrimination is the means, then women's “empowerment” should start by developing a notion of power and politics that befits women in its logic and its structure, accommodating their needs as...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

Bridget Guzner

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,982 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Publishing. Although this system of ideological control remained unchanged for more than 40 years, censorship gradually became more relaxed; economic difficulties led to dwindling state subsidies; and the 1980s began to see a technically developed and intellectually strong publishing industry able to satisfy a readership that was by now aware of Communism’s impending collapse. *Samizdat books did not have the important role in Hungary that they had in other Soviet bloc countries. By the end of the 1980s , there was little to distinguish samizdat from...

Britain and America: A Common Heritage

Britain and America: A Common Heritage   Quick reference

George Redmonds

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,879 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...both countries have a direct interest in strengthening those ties and finding out more about the emigrants. British people have long been aware of the interest that Americans have in family origins and their British ancestry, but, until comparatively recently, the topic had no popular appeal in this country, and genealogy was thought of as a preoccupation of the landed gentry . That has changed over the last 30 years or so as family history has become a popular and serious study here also. On the face of it, therefore, researchers in the two countries may...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and until the 19th century the majority of Britons still lived in rural settlements. Yet Britain then became the first country in the world to urbanize, rapidly outpacing its neighbours, and acting as a pioneer in developing new types of urban design such as garden cities . This historically very recent, but also decisive, change has had many effects upon British culture, including an ambivalent attitude to urban living. It has also made more difficult researches into family history, since the rapid growth of towns came about largely by mass migration from the...

Scandinavian Family Names

Scandinavian Family Names   Reference library

Olav Veka and Lennart Ryman

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
3,904 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as it was American. The more immigrants there were in a given district, the easier it was to keep a Norwegian flavor in the family names. Research has shown that farmstead names clearly dominated many immigrant environments; in some rural districts, they comprised as many as two-thirds of the surnames, which is not far from the distribution in the old country. The Norwegian identity is more obvious in the case of most farmstead names than it is for patronymics, since farmstead names are less usual in the other Scandinavian countries. Frequent elements in...

The Psychological Role of Islam in Economic Development

The Psychological Role of Islam in Economic Development   Reference library

Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,229 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...countries. This found expression in giving room for European economy to perform its role on the stage of that country in vari-ous forms—exploiting raw materials, filling the void with foreign capital, monopoly of several economic services on the pretext of preparing the people of backward countries to bear the burden of the economic development of their country; 3. subordination in the program followed in many an attempt within the Islamic world to get free of the dominant European economy and to begin to think of relying on one's own power to develop the...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

Paul Hoftijzer

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,047 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...urban clientele. This is not to say that monastic scriptoria dwindled, but their output decreased in relative terms. As the Low Countries during the high Middle Ages swiftly developed into one of the most densely populated and urbanized areas of Europe, the production and use of MSS in cities all over the region expanded substantially. Religious and theological books remained of primary importance, but more and more works on worldly subjects, such as law, medicine, astrology, and history, as well as literary compositions and schoolbooks, were becoming...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

Charlotte Appel and Karen Skovgaard-Petersen

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,240 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the leading newspaper nations worldwide. As elsewhere in Europe, the book industry in the Nordic countries changed following the introduction of new printing and manufacturing technologies c .1830 ( see 11 ). Hitherto, Nordic countries had mainly used imported paper, producing it on a small scale (mainly in Sweden). However, after the development of wood-based paper, Finland and Sweden (and to a lesser extent Norway), with their large areas of forest, developed significant paper industries. In 2000 , Finland was the second largest exporter of paper, after...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

Eugenia Roldán Vera

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,881 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Comisión Nacional de Libros de Texto Gratuito ( 1959 ), established to publish set works for primary schools in the whole country. In addition, those countries’ publishing industries began to acquire the structure of modern enterprises, ruled by market forces: low production costs were achieved through high *press runs (especially for pocket books and textbooks), which could be sold in Latin American countries with less developed publishing industries such as Chile, Uruguay, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and the Central American republics. As a result, Mexican...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...institutions of power and Britain successfully avoided any revolutionary upheaval (unlike most other countries in Europe), it did develop a political system during this period in which the middling and lower orders exerted considerable influence. In the urban centres, these classes developed a complex and sophisticated political and social culture that enabled them to influence elections to parliament and town councils, to propagate their views across the country, to associate together in a whole range of voluntary and independent societies, and to form pressure...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of the 21 st century, Australia is among the most urbanized countries in the world, and one of the most sparsely populated. The three major cities of the eastern seaboard—Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane—account for nearly half the country’s population of 20 million. Similarly, the book trade is dominated by just a few of the more than 200 active publishers. In 2001 , six multinationals— *Penguin , *Random House , *HarperCollins , Pan *Macmillan , Hodder Headline, and *Simon & Schuster —held more than 60 per cent of the general retail market. The largest...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

David Pearson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,353 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...medieval times, some bookbinding was undertaken within monasteries as a logical adjunct to the writing and copying of MSS, but as soon as a secular trade in making and selling books developed (around the 12 th century), binders emerged as one subset alongside parchment makers, *scribes , and *stationers . The organization of binding work varied a little from country to country according to local custom, but throughout the early modern period binders generally entered the trade through *apprenticeship to an established practitioner, followed by formal...

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