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moral education

Subject: Philosophy

The great majority of ethical theories elaborate values and principles the adoption of which should be conducive to the achievement of the morally (often, more generally, practically) best ...

moral education

moral education   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
745 words

... education The great majority of ethical theories elaborate values and principles the adoption of which should be conducive to the achievement of the morally (often, more generally, practically) best human life. On the continent, there has been a tendency to require that moral principles be freely and actively endorsed by moral agents, so that rationally convincing arguments are the essential means to achieve a person's moral education. The British tradition has seen a less rationalistic approach. In a broad sense, moral education is assured by every...

spiritual, moral, social, and cultural education

spiritual, moral, social, and cultural education   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
130 words

...moral, social, and cultural education ( SMSCE ) An aspect of the school curriculum in England aimed at developing a set of core values, embedded across all national curriculum subjects in maintained schools , and included as part of the curriculum in academies and free schools. Its components are broadly defined in the following ways: spiritual refers to the pupil’s developing sense of self and ‘non-material wellbeing’; moral refers to the pupil’s understanding of right and wrong; social is concerned with the understanding of individual...

moral education

moral education  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The great majority of ethical theories elaborate values and principles the adoption of which should be conducive to the achievement of the morally (often, more generally, practically) best human ...
Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...education and independence, and even, in some cases, any direct connection with human nature. What differentiated Wollstonecraft from her contemporaries was her anger at such views. She greatly admired the educational ideals in * Rousseau 's Émile ( 1762 ), but was appalled at the contrast between Émile's broad education and Sophie 's narrow training, devised explicitly to render her docile and obedient. Inevitably, Wollstonecraft was powerfully influenced by the valorization of men in all she read. So great was male pre-eminence in moral matters,...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...such families employed a private tutor to instruct their children in the home. Household or ‘domestic’ education had been a common practice among the highest social ranks in the middle ages, and this old custom became a new fashion from the later years of the seventeenth century. Some advanced educational commentators, led by Locke, developed an aversion to institutional or ‘public’ education because of the risks it might involve of exposure to moral contamination, or because of the constraints of the collective classroom on the free growth of the mind. The...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...pauper was a specifically delineated moral and economic category. Building on earlier definitions of poverty as a condition both of labour and of destitution, social commentators cut away a newly identified ambiguity to describe as paupers all who relied on the poor rates or charity to supplement their income. Pauperism was seen as individual moral failure, and parish relief, particularly wage supplementation, was condemned for paralysing moral independence and dissolving social ties. Symptomatic of this economic and moral disorder, the pauper's house was...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Art ( 1796 ), exposes society's arbitrary injustice and sexual hypocrisy, using the perspective of a child brought up naturally to counter the corrosive vanity of another child brought up to ape his elders. The theme of *education [17] is the major link between the two works. The social mores which replace moral thinking in the education of *women [4] are also a key underlying concern of Mary Wollstonecraft's two novels, Mary ( 1788 ) and The Wrongs of Woman; or, Maria (unfinished; posthumously published in 1798 ). More explicitly writing in order to...

Domesticity

Domesticity   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...In James Phillips Kay's (later Kay-Shuttleworth) Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes in Manchester ( 1832 ), for example, moral and physical threats to ‘the sanctity of the domestic circle’ are both the cause and effect of the impoverished condition of the urban Irish poor in Manchester. In effect, Kay's medical, social, and statistical diagnosis racializes *poverty [12] and disease as the inherent natural condition of the urban Irish poor. This identification of the poor with moral laxity and sexual excess worked to justify the middle...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the civilizing process. The historian Paul Langford sees a similar relationship between philanthropy and entrepreneurship. *Evangelical reformers , too, linked moral with material improvement. Much of the suffering addressed by the humanitarian reformers of the later eighteenth century could be laid at the door of that masculine world against which the culture defined itself and which moral reformers wished to enter and to change. The wide range of ‘obvious and pointless physical suffering’ they protested came to include the cruel treatment of animals;...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on the relevance of the eighteenth-century literature of jeremiad—those insistent warnings about the enfeebling consequences of luxury that predicted depopulation and national ruin. Malthus entertained his own visions of gradual economic and moral improvement, if the rate of population increase could be controlled by ‘moral restraint’ (deferred marriage accompanied by sexual continence) and thereby kept in step with (or just behind) the growth in the means of subsistence. But his efforts to change public perceptions on the subject also brought the signs of...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... *lectures . While the eighteenth-century ‘blackguard tradesmen’ revelled in rough, masculine conviviality, consciously respectable artisans often encouraged their wives to participate in the new self-improving recreational culture and to undertake the education of their children [ see *popular education ]. A freethinker himself, Place illustrates, too, how criticism of popular manners and morals was further exacerbated by conflicts in religious outlook. His autobiography was scathing about the apathy and fatalism of the superstitious labourer. Attempts...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The later Romantic belief that only in solitude are people fully themselves needs the qualification that only in society can people be educated for a solitary life. Yet how then should the inner and private mental life be studied? Thomas Brown ( 1778–1820 ), professor of moral philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, gave a philosopher's answer in his Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind ( 1820 ). The science of mind, he said, was intellectual analysis—the distinguishing by careful reflection of the constituent elements that make up the...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...belief that they are exclusively “The People”’. During the 1820s, the early co-operative and *socialist movements were developing a different idea of class which disrupted this adulation of the golden mean and bestowed its moral gloss elsewhere. Even when class was being described in terms of function in economic life, it was the moral value of each class contribution that was being underlined. Middle-class activists were keen on binary oppositions which dignified their social contribution, as in the industrious versus the idle classes, the productive...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...were opportunities—pre-eminently, the waves of educational reform—which were eagerly seized by some sections of the book trade. 4 Education, access, and the reading public Substantial British educational reform began in the 19 th century, with the 1870 Education Act establishing the principle of free and compulsory primary-level education. In 1902 similar legislation was applied to the provision of secondary-level education, and by 1944 school attendance was made compulsory and free for all children under 15. From the 1960s there was a rapid...

15 Children’s Books

15 Children’s Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...technology, and manufacturing held out the promise of rationally restructuring society for the improvement of mankind. Educational issues were central to discussions of moral and political philosophy during the period; *Locke held that education was the best means of ensuring the continuity of prevailing values from generation to generation, and *Rousseau argued that education should transform society by effecting radical change in the attitudes and behaviour of young people. Early childhood was increasingly viewed as the critical stage of life for...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Universities also provided a natural forum for debate [ see *education, 17 ]. Cambridge fostered *Whiggish Latitudinarian Enlightenment thought, while the Scottish universities distinguished themselves variously in moral philosophy, jurisprudence, *political economy [33] , *chemistry , and metaphysics. There were particularly strong links also between Ireland and the University of Glasgow, in part because Protestant Dissenters could avoid the Test Acts by pursuing their university education in Scotland. An Irishman, Francis Hutcheson , ( 1694–1746 ),...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,985 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...madhouses, engaging in ‘the trade in lunacy’, were corrupt and brutal. But others pioneered innovations in psychotherapy. So also did the York Retreat, opened in 1796 on the initiative of a group of Yorkshire *Quakers , and beginning what was known as moral management and moral therapy. According to the moral therapists, madness was not primarily or solely a disease of the body and its organs, but a disordering of the mind, the emotions, and the imagination. Its champions argued that the insane must no longer be seen as wild animals, or as devoid of reason...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in which population would no longer expand, affluence would be more widely shared, and greater stress would be laid on mental, moral, and social progress. Other, less well-known liberal and radical utopias of this period likewise stop short of socialism. In Henry *Forest 's A Dream of Reform ( 1848 ), the workday in ‘Philotopia’ has been reduced to eight hours, factories have been removed from dwelling-places, leisure and education for all classes are the norm, and cultural activities are subsidized by the government. Cities are built to accord with...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as generally educated discourse—a spacious universe of written genres ranging from *natural philosophy [34] , *historiography , moral philosophy, political philosophy, and *political economy [33] to poetry, drama, and criticism—the Monthly and Critical reviews attempted to be encyclopedic in their display of recent or emerging knowledges. Hence they employed scholars in linguistics, mathematics, *chemistry , classics, moral philosophy, and other disciplines to inspect ‘all’ books in both established and emerging intellectual fields. Such reviewers...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...literature measured about 16 per cent. A little over half of the latter category, 8.9 per cent or 3,180 entries over 32 years, constituted *novels , romances, and tales as distinct from moral tales and books for *children . *Poetry and drama, however, were a separate category in the booktrade press’s calculations. They were sixth at about 8 per cent, after education (12 per cent) and the jumble of arts, science, mathematics, and illustrated works (9 per cent). Works on medicine and law amounted to 6 per cent and 4 per cent respectively. Another unhelpful...

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