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Overview

monolingual dictionary

Prefigurations of the modern monolingual dictionary have been found as early as ancient Sumer and early China. A more direct ancestor, supplying etymologies as well as meanings, was Sextus ...

monolingual dictionary

monolingual dictionary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,035 words

...English Dictionary ( 1830 ); his subsequent Universal and Critical Dictionary ( 1846 ) was also unfairly presented as derived from Webster. His illustrated Dictionary of the English Language ( 1860 ) appeared for a while to have won the ‘war of the dictionaries’, remaining the principal competitor of Webster-Goodrich’s so-called ‘Unabridged’ until the appearance of William Dwight Whitney’s Century Dictionary ( 1889–91 ) and Isaac Kaufmann Funk’s Standard Dictionary ( 1893 ). The vast development of monolingual dictionaries in 19 th -century...

monolingual dictionary

monolingual dictionary  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Prefigurations of the modern monolingual dictionary have been found as early as ancient Sumer and early China. A more direct ancestor, supplying etymologies as well as meanings, was Sextus Pompeius ...
code-switching

code-switching  

1. (sociolinguistics) Bilingual speakers shifting from one language to another.2. More rarely, monolingual speakers switching between discourse types.3. (semiotics) Switching between subcodes in any ...
bilingualism

bilingualism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Widespread bilingualism at some level was characteristic of the ancient world. Latin and esp. Greek were the languages of culture and education (in the Roman empire, Latin was the language of law and ...
Learner’s Dictionary

Learner’s Dictionary   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Learner’s Dictionary ( English Learner’s Dictionary , EFL dictionary , ELT dictionary ) . A dictionary intended for the use of foreign- and second-language learners and printed entirely in English. For foreign learners of most languages, bidirectional bilingual dictionaries (Italian-English, English-Italian, etc.) have been the norm, but since the 1960s the pre-dominant type in tefl and tesl has been a monolingual ‘learner’s dictionary’, which are now fully available online, such as the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English ...

dictionaries

dictionaries   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Literature
Length:
198 words

... of Irish developed from early glossaries such as Sanas Chormaic , c. ad 900 [ see Cormac mac Cuileannáin ]. The first printed dictionary, Míchéal Ó Cléirigh 's Focloir no Sanasan Nua ( 1643 ), was monolingual. All later dictionaries have been bilingual. Conchubhar Ó Beaglaoich and Aodh Buidhe Mac Cruitín compiled the first English-Irish dictionary of 1732 . John O'Brien's Focalóir-Gaoidhilge-Sax-Bhéarla ( 1768 ) contains many historical articles under place, family, and personal names. Edward O'Reilly 's Irish-English dictionary of...

Dictionaries

Dictionaries   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,778 words

...but has more sophisticated monolingual entries offering explanations of the meaning of words and details of their orthography, gender, etymology, and usage. From 1606 to 1680 no major original monolingual French dictionary appeared; the majority of works published before 1680 are thus bilingual, and notably Latin–French dictionaries (e.g. Philibert Monet , Inventaire des deux langues française et latine , 1635 ), although there are also important modern‐language bilingual dictionaries (e.g. Cotgrave 's French–English dictionary of 1611 ). Note too ...

Isolates

Isolates   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,218 words

...3,676 as of 1995 . Spoken in Pernambuco and Alagoas. Possibly related to Kirirí. Highly acculturated. Monolingual in Portuguese. Pirahã: also called Múra-Pirahã. 150 speakers in Brazil. Ethnic population: 1,500 as of 1995 . The Pirahä are small, the Múra larger. Spoken in Amazonas, along the Maici and Autaces rivers. Probably related to Matanawi, which is extinct. The Múra are mostly integrated into Portuguese. The Pirahä are quite monolingual. Vigorous language use. Puelche: also called Gennaken, Pampa, Northern Tehuelche. 5 speakers remain in...

glossary

glossary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
304 words

...well as monolingual, bilingual, or multilingual. Whereas the broader term ‘dictionary’ is reserved for bibliographically discrete publications, glossaries often take the form of an *appendix to a book or a contribution to a periodical, and can also be MS or electronic. The earliest recorded examples, in ancient Greece or Rome, covered such topics as Homeric terms and legal or scientific subjects. The Code of Justinian (5 th century ad ) gave rise to numerous glossaries. In the Middle Ages, the term was associated with Latin–vernacular *dictionaries ,...

Lexicography

Lexicography   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...(‘unabridged’) one-volume US works as the Webster’s Third New International Dictionary and the Random House Dictionary of the English Language through the desk, family, or collegiate dictionary (such as Chambers English Dictionary and Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary ), to the concise or compact ( The Concise Oxford Dictionary ), the pocket ( The Pocket Oxford Dictionary ), and even smaller works (the Collins Gem series). Lexicographic work may be monolingual, bilingual or multilingual, and may be undertaken for general purposes or for...

Spanish language

Spanish language   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
295 words

...diacriticals other than the dieresis. Scholarship on the Spanish language was inaugurated by Lebrija , whose Gramática ( 1492 ) was the first published grammar of a modern European language. Several important Spanish bilingual dictionaries were published at the end of the fifteenth century and in the sixteenth; the first monolingual thesaurus was the Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española ( 1611 ) of Sebastián de Covarrúbias y Orozco. W. J. Entwistle , The Spanish Language (1962); Rafael Lapesa , Historia de la lengua española (9th edn....

Johnson, Samuel

Johnson, Samuel (1709–84)   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in the modern form before 1700 , and where Johnson differed from it in his dictionary entries (as in words such as logick and errour ) his recommended form has often failed to survive. It is nonetheless likely that, through the countless abbreviated and miniature editions running well into the 19c, the Dictionary played a role in propagating a standard spelling among the less literate and in forming and restraining the writings of the educated. Earlier monolingual dictionaries were mainly concerned with ‘hard’ words: the bookish, Latinate, and technical...

Dictionary

Dictionary   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,437 words

...‘dictionaries’. Among the many kinds of dictionary, the commonest contrast is between monolingual or unilingual dictionaries that list and define the words of one language and bilingual dictionaries that offer the equivalents of Language A in Language B, and vice versa. In computing, the term refers to both a list of codes, terms, keys, etc., and their meanings, as used in computer programs, and a list of words (often drawn from a conventional dictionary) against which spellings can be checked. Origins The earliest known prototypes of the dictionary...

Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Highland Arequipa, Antabamba (Apurimac). Closer linguistically to Cuzco Quechua than to Ayacucho Quechua. 10,000 monolinguals, 15,000 speak varying degrees of Spanish. Parents transmit Arequipa-La Union Quechua to children. Oral use in local administration and business. Language of instruction in some schools. Occasional oral use in some churches. Some families are switching to Spanish. Speakers of other languages use Quechua to talk to monolinguals. Speakers consider Quechua to be inferior to Spanish. Fluent speakers of Spanish usually leave the area. Those...

Lexicography

Lexicography   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,486 words

...oldest and by far the most widely diffused self-instructional learning aid. Dictionaries help to form and to maintain the “dictionariate” language communities that are fortunate enough to possess them, and for such communities they are a source of proper pride. For linguists who want to transcend the dichotomies between the diachronic and the synchronic, between the lexical and the grammatical—and even between the lexicographic and the encyclopedic—monolingual and bilingual dictionaries constitute a treasure trove of information, as useful as it is...

Southwest Pama-Nyungan Languages

Southwest Pama-Nyungan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,539 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Kintore, Northern Territory, and Balgo hills, Western Australia. About 10% are bilingual in English, 90% monolingual. Pitjantjatjara: also called Pitjantjara. 2,500 speakers in Pitjantjatjara Freehold lands, northwestern South Australia, surrounding areas, and Yalata. Dialects are Yankunytjatjara, Pitjantjatjara (Pithantjatjarra). Pitjantjatjara is one of the many varieties of the “Western Desert language.” About 20% are bilingual in English, 80% monolingual. Roman. Tjurruru: also called Tjururu. Formerly spoken in northwestern Western Australia, Hardey River,...

Uto-Aztecan Languages

Uto-Aztecan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,500 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Only a few elderly speakers left. In North Fork there are informal language classes, dictionary under development; in Big Sandy, there are language classes, word lists. Náhuatl Central : also called Central Aztec, Tlaxcala-Puebla Náhuatl. 40,000 speakers in Mexico. Ethnic population: 63,000 as of 1986 . Spoken in the states of Tlaxcala and Puebla. The most monolingual location is about 15 km northeast of Puebla City. Spanish is used by a few. There are some monolingual children. Náhuatl Huasteca, Este : also called Eastern Huasteca Aztec, Hidalgo Náhuatl,...

Dictionaries

Dictionaries   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,624 words

...variety, dictionaries in German developed somewhat later. J. L. Frisch's Teutsch-Lateinischen Wörter-Buchs ( German-Latin Dictionary , 1741 ), influenced by the theoretical discussions of the philosopher G. W. Leibniz and others at the end of the seventeenth century, may be considered, owing to its broadly conceived documentation of past written texts, as the first purposive attempt to produce a comprehensive representation of the German lexicon. Adelung's work, however, gave the Germans their first full monolingual definitional dictionary. It carried...

Indigenous Languages in Latin America

Indigenous Languages in Latin America   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,777 words

...reflect a growing strength and politicization of indigenous movements in Latin America. As the population shifted in the second half of the twentieth century from rural to urban areas, indigenous speakers often quickly switched from being monolingual speakers of their native language to being monolingual speakers of Spanish or Portuguese. Activists worry that as most speakers grow older, languages will soon disappear, particularly as parents who perceive native languages to hold little economic or cultural value fail to pass them on to the next...

Mongolic Languages

Mongolic Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,787 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(Qiqihar, Tsitsikhar). Definitely distinct from other Mongolian languages. Butha is the standard dialect, Nawan speech as standard pronunciation. Some sources list Tacheng (spoken in Xinjiang) as a dialect. Some list Haila'er as a dialect of Evenki. About 24,270 speakers are monolingual. Others can speak Chinese or Mongolian as second language. Speakers are reported to have high and widespread levels of bilingualism in Chinese. A few also speak Evenki, Kazak, Oroqen, or Manchu. Chinese is the language of schools. It has moderately vigorous use among adults,...

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