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money supply

The amount of money in an economy. This may be the country's own money, supplied by its banking system, or foreign money, used in preference to domestic money. There is no single accepted ...

money supply

money supply   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
109 words

...money supply The amount of money in an economy. This may be the country’s own money, supplied by its banking system, or foreign money, used in preference to domestic money. There is no single accepted definition of what constitutes money: while notes and coin are legal tender and must be included in any definition, and bank deposits repayable on demand are unlikely to be excluded, there are various types of deposit in non-bank financial intermediaries such as building societies, and various forms of highly liquid security, which can be included or excluded...

money supply

money supply   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... supply The quantity of money issued by a country’s monetary authorities (usually the central bank). If the demand for money is stable, the widely accepted quantity theory of money implies that increases in the money supply will lead directly to an increase in the price level, i.e. to inflation. Since the 1970s most Western governments have attempted to reduce inflation by controlling the money supply. This raises two issues: (i) how to measure the money supply; (ii) how to control the money supply ( see monetary policy ). In the UK various measures of...

money supply

money supply   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
251 words

... supply The quantity of money issued by a country’s monetary authorities (usually the central bank). If the demand for money is stable, the widely accepted quantity theory of money implies that increases in the money supply will lead directly to an increase in the price level, i.e. to inflation. Since the 1970s most Western governments have attempted to reduce inflation by controlling the money supply. This raises two issues: (i) how to measure the money supply; (ii) how to control the money supply ( see monetary policy ). In the UK various measures of...

money supply

money supply   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...interest rates and terms control , in an attempt to influence the timing, availability, and cost of money and credit . It is prompted by the setting of particular government objectives, such as, price stability. Putting aside the theoretical controversies regarding the efficacy of monetary policy , as compared with fiscal policy , the former has now become associated with establishing of targets for the money supply. This is the total amount of money in circulation which can be measured in several ways, including M0 known as little MO or the ...

money-supply rules

money-supply rules   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...-supply rules A policy in which a government or central bank commits itself in advance to certain rules governing the money supply . It is based on the belief that fiscal policy and monetary policy cannot affect the real variables in an economic situation but that uncertainty concerning government or central bank intentions can destabilize markets. In these circumstances a stable-policy rule is the best that can be achieved. See also rules versus discretion...

money supply

money supply noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
38 words
money supply

money supply noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
36 words
money supply

money supply noun   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
18 words
money supply

money supply  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The amount of money in an economy. This may be the country's own money, supplied by its banking system, or foreign money, used in preference to domestic money. There is no single accepted definition ...
money-supply rules

money-supply rules  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A policy in which a government or central bank commits itself in advance to certain rules governing the money supply. It is based on the belief that fiscal policy and monetary policy cannot affect ...
Timon of Athens

Timon of Athens   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,245 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to borrow money from them. Flavius reports that the senators have already declined to make such a loan, but Timon sends him to borrow from Ventidius, who has recently inherited a fortune. 3.1 Lucullus at first assumes Timon’s servant has come to bring him another gift, but when he learns he has come for money he attempts to bribe him to tell Timon he has not seen him. The servant throws back the bribe and curses him. 3.2 Lucius, hearing from three strangers of Lucullus’ conduct, is indignant on Timon’s behalf, but when he is himself asked for money he makes...

The Characteristics of Islamic Economics

The Characteristics of Islamic Economics   Reference library

Āyatullāh Mahmūd

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,392 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...form of limited freedom in transactions and the supervision of the government over commodities, the simple law of supply and demand in the usual capitalist understanding cannot direct transactions. This is because demand in the usual capitalist usage and in actuality depends upon the ability to buy things and on having money. But demand, on the basis of Islamic jurisprudence, arises out of what is actually required by necessity. Therefore supply and the actual making available of goods will be limited to what is actually required by necessity. The marketplace...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... is Latin for ‘wolf’). Synopsis: 1.1 Antonio, a Venetian merchant, will not be cheered up by his associates, even the frivolous Graziano. Left alone with his friend Bassanio, who already owes him much money, he learns of Bassanio’s desire to woo an heiress of Belmont called Portia, for which Bassanio will need further money. Antonio urges Bassanio to borrow money on his credit for this purpose. 1.2 In Belmont, Portia reflects on her late father’s will, which obliges her to marry whichever suitor correctly chooses between three chests of gold, silver, and lead:...

Tobit

Tobit   Reference library

Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ and Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,111 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sum of money in far-off Rages in Media, he decided to send Tobias to get the money. At the same time at Ecbatana in Media, a young relative, Sarah, was also praying to die, because she suffered from the vituperation of maidservants, since all seven men to whom she had been given in marriage were slain by an evil demon Asmodeus, as they sought to approach her. In answer to the prayers of the two of them, Tobit and Sarah, God sent the angel Raphael to Nineveh. Raphael accompanied Tobias on his journey to Media to get his father's money. En route , when...

Social Justice in Islam

Social Justice in Islam   Reference library

Sayyid Qutb

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,905 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...high standing, such as they enjoy in those human societies which lack a certainty of true values, or which give to them too slight an importance; in such conditions money alone becomes the supreme and fundamental value. In Islam money is not given this value; Islam refuses to admit that life can be reckoned in terms of a mouthful of bread, the appetites of the body, or a handful of money. Yet at the same time it demands a competence for every individual, and at times more than a competence, in order to remove the fear of destitution. On the other side...

Henry IV Part 2

Henry IV Part 2   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,727 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...has Sir John arrested for breach of promise, explaining, before the Lord Chief Justice, who happens to pass, that he has lived at her expense for many years, owes her money, and has promised her marriage. Sir John attempts to convince the Justice that she is mad, but finally takes her aside, renews his promises to her, and convinces her to pawn her silver in order to lend him yet more money: Mistress Quickly even invites him to supper, asking whether he would like the prostitute Doll Tearsheet to be there too. The Justice receives discouraging news of the...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

Cristina Dondi

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...came from the commercial sector, quite often from the Church, occasionally from the aristocracy. The financier would generally supply the cost of paper—equal to approximately half the total investment required to produce a book—and could also have an important role relating to the distribution of copies. The number of sheets per copy and the total press run had to be calculated in advance so as to buy enough paper; sufficient money had to be set aside for that part of the investment. Press runs in the 15 th century varied substantially according to the...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

Claire Squires

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,043 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...During the Blitz, several publishers, including *Unwin , *Ward Lock , Hodder & Stoughton, and Macmillan, were bombed, losing business records and stock. The wholesaler *Simpkin , Marshall, which supplied many of Britain’s booksellers, received a direct hit. As a consequence, demand far outstripped publishers’ capacity to supply. The issues of supply continued well beyond 1945 , and the editor Diana Athill’s description of the ‘book-hungry days’ of the ‘post-war book famine’ was not exaggerated (Athill, 34). Wartime inhibited publishers in terms of...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...contracts to print the laws and proceedings of the Pennsylvania assembly and issues of paper money for Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey, and he won Pennsylvania’s postmastership in 1737 . Through partnership arrangements, Franklin helped establish printing offices across the colonies, including his former *journeyman *Timothy ’s office in Charleston, South Carolina. He also set up paper mills (including Virginia’s first) to control the supply for his own printing and to assist printers elsewhere. By the 1750s , he was the colonies’ largest...

Indian Family Names

Indian Family Names   Reference library

Rocky Miranda and Urvashi Prasannanshu Jain

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
2,803 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...given names as well, but they all occur as the final elements of compound given names and sometimes as separate surnames. Having had no surnames previously, or having shed the previous surnames for some reason, the bearers of these compound given names split those names to supply new surnames. Most of the split surnames of this second category are not associated with a specific caste or community. The name of a clan or some similar subgroup of the community to which one belongs is used as a surname quite frequently. Here are some examples: Arora clan...

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