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monasticism

Subject: Religion

Christian monasticism is motivated by a desire to seek God through Christ by a life of asceticism and prayer; Christian monks and nuns believe themselves to have a personal call from God ...

monasticism

monasticism   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
130 words

... Ascetic way of life followed by men or women who have taken religious vows and belong to a recognized religious order. Christian monasticism is said to have its origins in the late 3rd-century asceticism of the desert hermits of Egypt, Saint Anthony and Saint Pachomius . A communal approach replaced this solitary life, and community members followed a strict rule. The earliest such rule in Europe was that laid down by Saint Benedict (of Nursia) in the 6th century. Monasticism still embraces community life of such enclosed Christian orders, as the...

monasticism

monasticism   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
433 words

...in the mid-19th cent. in many European countries, and monasticism spread to North America and Australia . In the 20th cent. it began to take root in Africa, Asia, and South America. Monasticism also flourished in the Byzantine Empire. It spread with Christianity to the Slav countries; there were monasteries in Kiev in the 11th cent., and a flourishing monastic life around Moscow in the 14th. A 19th-cent. revival of Russian monasticism continued until 1917 . A special place in Orthodox monasticism is held by Mt Athos , where there are monks from all the...

monasticism

monasticism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,500 words

...to extinction. A revival took place in the mid-19th cent. in many European countries, and monasticism spread to N. America and Australia . In the 20th cent. monasticism has begun to take root in Africa, Asia, and S. America. Monasticism also flourished in the Byzantine empire, esp. in Constantinople and its environs. Here it enjoyed great influence within society and monks took part in the theological and ecclesiastical controversies of the time. Although monasticism in the E. never divided into different vocations and orders, as it did in the W., there are...

monasticism

monasticism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,483 words
Illustration(s):
1

... The pursuit of a life of *asceticism , with intent to achieve salvation, lived apart from secular society. Monasticism was of fundamental importance to the institutions and practice of medieval Christianity, western and eastern. Monastic communities played a crucial role in the development of spiritual, intellectual, architectural, artistic, medical, and other traditions over the course of the MA. 1. Origins 2. Rules and customs 3. ‘Secularization’ 4. Reform 5. Developments 1. Origins Christian monasticism originated during the 4th century...

Monasticism

Monasticism   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
550 words

... Christianity The Gk., monachos , underlying ‘monk’, points to someone being ‘on their own’. It may originally have meant ‘celibate ’ and only later ‘solitary’; but monasticism came to refer to those who withdraw from society (in a celibate state) in order to devote themselves with greater intensity to God through prayer, austerity, and discipline. In its extreme form, it is anchorite (living alone), but it may also be coenobitic (living in community). Monasticism began to emerge in Egypt in the 3rd cent.; St Antony is regarded as the ‘father’...

Monasticism

Monasticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,759 words
Illustration(s):
1

...community from the first century into the fourth, when Christian monasticism, strictly speaking, fully appeared. A few Christian monks may have been inspired by Philo's literary depiction of the Therapeutae. Although some scholars once sought to explain Christian monasticism in terms of external influence (“Hellenism” or “dualistic Platonism”), most now agree that it arose from impulses present in Christianity from the beginning. There was no single origin for the diverse forms of monasticism that developed across the Mediterranean basin in the fourth and...

Monasticism

Monasticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,111 words

...it has not been called “monasticism” ( rahbāniyah ), some Muslims from classical times to the present have followed practices that closely parallel monasticism in other religions. Meanwhile, Muslim attitudes toward monasticism in other religions has been rather ambivalent. Indeed the Qurʿān itself expresses such ambivalence. The most crucial verse is Qurʿān 57:27 : “Then we sent Jesus the son of Mary to follow, giving him the gospel, and we put in the hearts of those who followed him compassion and mercy, as well as monasticism, which they invented. We did...

Monasticism

Monasticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,817 words

...at the heart of monasticism. These Reformation uncertainties strongly modified monasticism but did not change it fundamentally. See also Monasteries ; Nuns ; and Religious Orders . Bossy, John . Christianity in the West, 1400–1700 . Oxford, 1985. A scholarly survey which provides a wide context for monasticism during this period. Butler, Edward Cuthbert . Benedictine Monachism: Studies in Benedictine Life and Rule (1924). 2d. ed. Reprint, Cambridge and New York, 1962. A study based upon one rule, but with application to European monasticism in general....

monasticism

monasticism   Reference library

Columba Stewart

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and Palestinian Monasticism under the Christian Empire (1966). M. Choat , ‘Development and Usage of Terms for Monk’, JbAC 45 (2003), 5–23. A. Diem , ‘Inventing the Holy Rule: Some Observations on the History of Monastic Normative Observance in the Early Medieval West’, in Fentress and Dey , eds., Western Monasticism ante litteram , 53–84. J. Goehring , ‘Through a Glass Darkly: Diverse Images of the Ἀποτακτικοί(αί) ‎ in Early Egyptian Monasticism’, in his Ascetics, Society, and the Desert: Studies in Early Egyptian Monasticism (1999), 53–72. P...

Monasticism

Monasticism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,402 words

... (from μονάζειν, “to live alone”), a life devoted to worship, practiced by monks and nuns . Monasticism was an essential part of the social and religious fabric of the empire, affecting the life of every Byz. and playing a spiritual, economic, philanthropic, and cultural role. Initially a lay movement, monasticism first appeared in the late 3rd C. when Christians began to retire to the Egyptian desert for solitary lives of asceticism and prayer . Among these early desert fathers was Antony the Great , whose biography by Athanasios of...

Monasticism

Monasticism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
8,011 words

... The West, 7th-9th centuries The West, 10th-15th centuries Byzantium, 6th-10th centuries Byzantium, 11th-15th centuries Italo-Greek The West, 7th-9th centuries The most fertile regions for monasticism were at first Spain and Gaul. Long retarded by the repression of Priscillianism and the Arian persecution, the expansion of Visigothic monasticism is revealed by the drawing up of a series of Rules : those of Isidore of Seville and Fructuosus of Braga for their respective monasteries, a Regula communis intended for a group of communities in...

monasticism

monasticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
780 words

... has long been seen as dominating the Irish church before the 12th‐century reform . Since this view is now controversial, the received wisdom is presented first, followed by the recent revision. The 5th‐century missionary church was assumed to have been organized in territorial dioceses. However, the absence of towns and Roman administrative infrastructure supposedly rendered Ireland infertile ground for such a system. On the other hand it is maintained that monasticism, which gained popularity in the western church in the 6th century, was suited,...

monasticism

monasticism   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Literature
Length:
310 words

... was the dominant form of ecclesiastical and scholarly life in Ireland from the 6th to the 12th cents., when the bardic schools emerged, and remained central to Gaelic society until the 16th cent., when the Dissolution of the Monasteries associated with the English Reformation was extended by Crown authorities to Ireland. The foundations of the Norman period [ see Norman invasion ], such as the Cistercian abbeys at Mellifont and Jerpoint, reflected the advent of Continental influence in Ireland. In the earlier period, the communities associated with...

Cenobitic Monasticism

Cenobitic Monasticism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
5 words

...Monasticism . See Koinobion ; Monasticism...

monasticism, Georgian

monasticism, Georgian   Reference library

Nikoloz Aleksidze

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., Georgian The development of Georgian monasticism in Late Antiquity can be divided into three principal stages. Georgian monasticism originated in the Holy Land, where the presence of Georgian monks and the existence of Georgian monasteries is widely attested throughout Late Antiquity. The arrival of Peter the Iberian and his companions provided further impetus to Georgian monastic and ascetic activity in the region. As for monastic practice in the territory of Georgia itself, the arrival of the Thirteen Syrian Fathers in Iberia in the early...

Idiorrhythmic Monasticism

Idiorrhythmic Monasticism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
238 words

...Monasticism , an individualized form of monastic life. The term idiorrhythmia (ἰδιο〈ρ〉ρυθμία), meaning “following one's own devices,” is found as early as the 5th C. ( Mark the Hermit , PG 65:1037A), but this type of monasticism did not become at all common until the Palaiologan era and has a negative connotation throughout the Byz. period. In general, idiorrhythmic monasticism has been condemned by the Eastern church (as in the typikon for the monastery of Areia , 249.13–14) because of its deviation from the traditional ideals of the ...

monasticism, Armenian

monasticism, Armenian   Reference library

Sergio La Porta

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...emergence of coenobitic monasticism in Armenia, but recent scholarship has supported its introduction in the late 6th or 7th centuries based upon Palestinian models. The Rule of S. Basil , translated into Armenian in the 6th century , was probably employed, although the earliest explicit reference to its use appears in conjunction with a late 9th-century monastic foundation. Sergio La Porta N. G. Garsoïan , ‘Introduction to the Problem of Early Armenian Monasticism’, REArm 30 ns (2005–7), 177–236. S. La Porta , ‘Monasticism and the Construction of...

Female monasticism

Female monasticism   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., 2 vols (Stuttgart, 2001) C. Berman : ‘How Much Space Did Medieval Nuns Have or Need?’, Shaping Community: The Art and Archaeology of Monasticism , ed. S. McNally (Oxford, 2001), pp. 100–16 C. Jäggi : ‘Eastern Choir or Western Gallery? The Problem of the Place of the Nuns’ Choir in Königsfelden and Other Early Mendicant Nunneries’, Gesta , xl (2001), pp. 79–93 P. Lowry : ‘Women in Nunneries: Monasticism and Opus Anglicanum’, Embroidery , liii (2002), pp. 28–9 K. Graf : Bildnisse schreibender Frauen im Mittelalter 9. bis Anfang 13. Jahrhundert...

Monasticism: Protestant Perspective

Monasticism: Protestant Perspective   Reference library

Monodeep Daniel

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...: Protestant Perspective Monasticism is associated with community life. The first Protestants to adopt it were William Carey * and his team of Baptist missionaries at Serampore * . They, however, were not celibates. At the time of the inauguration of the Church of North India * (CNI) in 1970 , there were six monastic communities within its fold, including the Oxford Brotherhood of the Epiphany in Kolkata, Convent of St Mary the Virgin in Pune, the Khrista Prema Seva (KPS) Ashram in Pune, Jyotiniketan Ashram in Bareilly, Community of St Stephens...

Monasticism: Catholic Perspective/History

Monasticism: Catholic Perspective/History   Reference library

Leonard Fernando

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...), community living or cenobitic monasticism became the prevalent type of monasticism, though the anchorite (that is, solitary) monasticism continued to exist. Basil ( 330–379 ) brought the movement of monasticism within the structure of the wider Church. He brought the monasteries closer to the cities and expected the monks and nuns to take care of the poor, sick, pilgrims, and travellers. His influence in the monastic tradition was so great that he is known as the Father of Eastern Orthodox Monasticism. From there, monasticism spread to the Latin-speaking West...

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