Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-20 of 333 entries  for:

  • All: mitochondrial-DNA x
clear all

View:

Overview

mitochondrial-DNA

Circular DNA that is found in mitochondria. It is entirely independent of nuclear DNA and, with very few exceptions, is transmitted from females to their offspring with no contribution ...

mitochondrial-DNA

mitochondrial-DNA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-DNA ( mt-DNA ) Circular DNA that is found in mitochondria. It is entirely independent of nuclear DNA and, with very few exceptions, is transmitted from females to their offspring with no contribution from the male parent. Mitochondrial-DNA codes for specific RNA components of ribosomes that are unique to those organelles. It also codes for some of the respiratory enzymes found in...

mitochondrial-DNA

mitochondrial-DNA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...-DNA ( mt-DNA ) Circular DNA that is found in mitochondria. It is entirely independent of nuclear DNA and, with very few exceptions, is transmitted from females to their offspring with no contribution from the male...

mitochondrial DNA

mitochondrial DNA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
119 words

...mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA ) A circular ring of DNA found in mitochondria . In mammals mtDNA makes up less than 1% of the total cellular DNA, but in plants the amount is variable. It codes for ribosomal and transfer RNA but only some mitochondrial proteins (up to 30 proteins in animals), the nuclear DNA being required for encoding most of these. Human mtDNA contains 37 genes, encoding 13 proteins and some RNAs. Mitochondrial DNA is generally inherited via the female line only, although there are exceptions to this ( see heteroplasmy ). According to the ...

mitochondrial-DNA

mitochondrial-DNA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
90 words

...-DNA ( mt-DNA ) Circular DNA that is found in mitochondria ( see mitochondrion ). It is entirely independent of nuclear DNA and, with very few exceptions, is transmitted from females to their offspring with no contribution from the male parent. Mitochondrial-DNA codes for specific RNA components of ribosomes that are unique to those organelles . It also codes for some of the respiratory enzymes found in mitochondria. Unlike animal mt-DNA, plant mt-DNA evolves very slowly and is capable of breaking into tripartate structures which can...

mitochondrial DNA

mitochondrial DNA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Forensic Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Science and technology, Law
Length:
127 words

... DNA ( mtDNA ) DNA that is found outside the cell nucleus in a structure called the mitochondria . The mitochondria are key in cell energy production and have their own DNA, which is inherited solely from the mother. Thus, even if a person is not available to provide comparison samples (deceased, missing, and so on), comparison standards can be obtained from anyone in the maternal line. Because it is found in even greater abundance than nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA can be used on very small samples, and problems of degradation are reduced....

mitochondrial-DNA

mitochondrial-DNA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
70 words

...-DNA ( mt-DNA ) Circular DNA that is found in mitochondria ( see mitochondrion ) . It is entirely independent of nuclear DNA and, with very few exceptions, is transmitted from females to their offspring with no contribution from the male parent. Mitochondrial-DNA codes for specific RNA components of ribosomes that are unique to those organelles . It also codes for some of the respiratory enzymes found in...

mitochondrial DNA

mitochondrial DNA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
48 words

... DNA ( mtDNA ) DNA contained in the mitochondria, which are bodies in a cell but not in the nucleus. The DNA is inherited only from the mother. It is useful for tracing matrilineage and in forensic cases for elimination, but it cannot give a positive...

mitochondrial DNA

mitochondrial DNA   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
94 words

... DNA abbr. : mtDNA; DNA that is contained, replicated, and expressed in mitochondria. mtDNA is double‐stranded in almost all organisms studied; that from mammals has a contour length of ≈5 μm, about 15 kilobases, while that from protozoa and fungi is about five times larger. Human mtDNA (16 569 bp) codes for two types of rRNA molecules, 22 types of tRNA molecules, and 13 proteins. mtDNA is transmitted maternally, i.e. with the mitochondria of oocytes. The code in mtDNA differs in some respects from that in nuclear DNA ( see genetic code ). See ...

mitochondrial DNA

mitochondrial DNA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
275 words

... DNA ( mtDNA ) the mitochondrial genome consists of a circular DNA duplex, and there are generally 5 to 10 copies per organelle. Human mitochondrial DNA ( q.v. ) is a 16.6 kb circle. The mtDNAs of plants are much larger (the mtDNA of Arabidopsis contains 367 kb), and fungi are intermediate (there are 75 kb in the mtDNA circles of Saccharomyces ). Introns have been found in mitochondrial genes from yeast but not from mammals. The genetic code of mitochondria differs slightly from the “universal” genetic code. Since, of the two gametes, only the...

mitochondrial DNA

mitochondrial DNA n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... DNA n. A form of DNA found in mitochondria , having its own genetic code, slightly different from the universal code of nuclear DNA and subject to variation between species, encoding subunits of vital respiratory enzymes. It is inherited only from mothers, because only the mother’s ovum contributes cytoplasm to the zygote , it consists of several loops, each containing 37 genes, and it is present in every mitochondrion. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA caused by free radicals have been linked to ageing and to several chronic degenerative...

mitochondrial plasmid DNA

mitochondrial plasmid DNA   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
43 words

... plasmid DNA a distinct class of genetic elements, found in certain wild‐type strains of Neurospora , that show virtually no sequence homology with standard mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in DNADNA hybridization experiments and achieve high copy number without suppressive behaviour towards wild‐type...

mitochondrial DNA lineages

mitochondrial DNA lineages   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
220 words

... DNA lineages evolutionary trees derived from data on mtDNAs. Human mitochondria are maternally inherited, and therefore mtDNA is contributed by the female parent to the next generation. Furthermore, mitochondrial genes do not undergo recombination. For these reasons, it is much simpler to trace mutations in mtDNA than in genomic DNA. In an analysis of mtDNAs published in1987, the restriction fragment polymorphisms were traced back to an mtDNA molecule carried by a hypothetical woman living in Africa about 200,000 years ago. In 1995, comparative...

human mitochondrial DNA

human mitochondrial DNA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
137 words

...mitochondrial DNA the mt chromosome is a circular DNA molecule that contains 16,560 bp. The genome is extremely compact. Coding sequences make up 93% of the total genome, and all genes lack introns. There are 37 genes; 28 are encoded by the heavy strand and 9 by the light. There are 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 13 genes that encode proteins, which function as subunits in enzymes that synthesize ATP. The original DNA sequence published in 1981 is referred to as the Cambridge reference sequence . It contains errors that were corrected in 1999. After...

mitochondrial DNA deletion syndrome

mitochondrial DNA deletion syndrome   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...mitochondrial DNA deletion syndrome The hepatocerebral form of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome can be caused by mutation in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase gene, the MPV17 gene or the C10ORF2 gene that encodes twinkle . The myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndrome is caused by mutation in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial thymidine kinase gene and the encephalomyopathic form is caused by mutation in the succinyl-CoA synthase...

mitochondrial DNA

mitochondrial DNA   Reference library

The New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... DNA Abbrev.: mtDNA (lower-case m,...

mitochondrial-DNA

mitochondrial-DNA  

Circular DNA that is found in mitochondria. It is entirely independent of nuclear DNA and, with very few exceptions, is transmitted from females to their offspring with no contribution from the male ...
human mitochondrial DNA

human mitochondrial DNA  

The mt chromosome is a circular DNA molecule that contains 16,560 bp. The genome is extremely compact. Coding sequences make up 93% of the total genome, and all genes lack introns. There are 37 ...
mitochondrial DNA deletion syndrome

mitochondrial DNA deletion syndrome  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The hepatocerebral form of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome can be caused by mutation in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase gene, the MPV17 gene or the C10ORF2 gene ...
mitochondrial plasmid DNA

mitochondrial plasmid DNA  

A distinct class of genetic elements, found in certain wild‐type strains of Neurospora, that show virtually no sequence homology with standard mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in DNA–DNA hybridization ...
mitochondrial DNA lineages

mitochondrial DNA lineages  

Evolutionary trees derived from data on mtDNAs. Human mitochondria are maternally inherited, and therefore mtDNA is contributed by the female parent to the next generation. Furthermore, mitochondrial ...

View: