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metalwork

The period between c. ad 450 and c. ad 1200 marked the pinnacle of Irish fine metalworking. Metalwork objects were made under both ecclesiastical and secular patronage. Archaeological ...

metalwork

metalwork   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
760 words

... The art of working precious *metals and their alloys has a long history. Various basic metalworking techniques (casting, hammering, chasing, *engraving , *repoussé ) and more advanced methods of surface decoration ( *enamelling , incrustation, openwork, granulation, filigree, *niello ) were known throughout antiquity and further developed in *Byzantium and medieval Europe. In the eastern Roman Empire, traditional Roman metalworking techniques continued to be practised largely unchanged until at least the 7th century. As precious metals were...

Metalwork

Metalwork   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
601 words

...near the Chalkoprateia church. Byz. metalwork generally preserved Roman techniques, with the notable exception of the manufacture of large-scale bronze statuary, which had ceased by the early 7th C. Techniques that did continue included the application of hammered sheets of gold, silver, and bronze to furniture and architectural members as metal revetments and the related treatment of doors . The survival of advanced metalworking techniques is suggested by the existence of automata . Smaller scale Byz. metalwork included the production of gold plates...

metalwork

metalwork   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
705 words

... . The period between c . ad 450 and c . ad 1200 marked the pinnacle of Irish fine metalworking. Metalwork objects were made under both ecclesiastical and secular patronage. Archaeological evidence suggests that metal workshops were attached to monasteries ( Clonmacnoise ) and royal sites (Clogher, Co. Tyrone), but also existed independently (Moynagh Lough, Co. Louth). The lack of inscriptions, particularly on earlier work, has led to difficulties in attaching specific dates to many pieces. Dating is often achieved by stylistic comparisons with...

Metalwork

Metalwork   Reference library

Carolyn Kane and Matthew Ponting

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,188 words

... Craddock saw Islamic metalwork as continuing the traditions of the classical world, and while this is certainly true for the most part, the early Islamic period does see some significant differences. Little Umayyad metalwork has survived and even less has been analyzed, but that which has, such as objects from el-Fedein/Mafraq (Jordan) and Bet She’an (Israel) indicate the use of ternary copper alloys identical to those of the late Roman and Byzantine periods, but with no true brasses, the alloy most prevalent in the Byzantine period. Leaded...

Metalwork

Metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
30,062 words
Illustration(s):
22

...Inlaid Metalwork, ” Met. Mus. J. , xxiii (1988), pp. 89–102 J. W. Allan : “ Metalwork of the Turcoman Dynasties of Eastern Anatolia and Iran, ” Iran , xxix (1991), pp. 153–60 L. Komaroff : The Golden Disk of Heaven: Metalwork of Timurid Iran (Costa Mesa, CA, 1992) L. Komaroff : “Persian Verses of Gold and Silver: The Inscriptions on Timurid Metalwork,” Timurid Art and Culture: Iran and Central Asia in the Fifteenth Century , ed. L. Golombek and M. Subtelny (Leiden, 1992), pp. 144–57 B. Syria and the Jazira. Surviving examples of metalwork produced...

Metalwork

Metalwork   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,688 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(Oct 1999): 1311–1321. Scarce, Jennifer . “The Arts of the Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries: Metalwork.” In The Cambridge History of Iran , vol. 7, From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic , pp. 939–945. Cambridge, 1991. Stronge, Susan. Bidri Ware: Inlaid Metalwork from India . London, 1985. Stronge, Susan, Nima Smith , and James C. Harle . A Golden Treasury: Jewellery from the Indian Subcontinent . New York, 1988. Whelan, Estelle . The Mamluk Revival: Metalwork for Religious and Domestic Use . New York, 1982. Carolyn...

Metalwork

Metalwork   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,428 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Our major sources of information about ancient metalworking are literary and pictorial testimonia, because little archaeological evidence for ancient workshops has been excavated. Ancient workshops were usually located on the periphery of a city center or a sanctuary, which may be why no signs of production have been found during the lengthy excavations of the sanctuary at Delphi, a site that has yielded hundreds of metal dedications of all kinds. In Athens, however, about twenty-five workshops and dumps have been identified around the Acropolis, the...

Metalwork

Metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
30,282 words
Illustration(s):
11

...the siege of a city. Two other exceptionally fine rhyta from the same grave are a silver bull-head rhyton with gilded horns and a gold rhyton in the form of a lion’s head . 2. Metalwork Helladic gold rhyton in the form of a lion’s head, h. 293 mm, from Shaft Grave V, Mycenae, Late Helladic iia (Athens, National Archaeological Museum) Nimatallah / Art Resource, NY ; see Metalwork (Helladic) Sheets of gold were also used to plate non-precious materials: from Grave V of Circle A, for example, came 12 plaques of sheet gold embossed with scenes of animals...

Metalwork

Metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,064 words

... [ This entry contains two subentries: Gold and Silver Base Metals.] Gold and Silver Fine arts related to gold and silver consist in part of the relationship among the silver forms, engraving and design. Silver has been made in decorative forms such as plates, flatware and hollowware but also as coins, medals and seals. 17th Century. During the 17th century, there was a greater interest in silver than in the fine arts of painting and sculpture. Silver in Colonial America was made in response to the styles abroad, especially those from England. However,...

Romanesque metalwork.

Romanesque metalwork.   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...metalwork. I. Introduction .   II. France .   III. Low Countries .   IV. Holy Roman Empire .   V. Eastern Europe .   VI. British Isles .   VII. Spain .   VIII. Portugal .   IX. Italy .   X. Scandinavia . I. Introduction. The craft of the Romanesque metalworker is elucidated in the treatise of Theophilus , who may have been the same person as the great Lower Saxon metalworker Roger of Helmarshausen. De diversis artibus , written in the 12th century, describes metalworking tools, techniques, including casting and repoussé decoration, and materials....

Gothic metalwork

Gothic metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
9,409 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of lettering on metalwork occur: Lombardic, used until c. 1400 , and black letter ( textura ), used from c. 1350 until c. 1500 (later in northern Europe). I. Introduction .   II. France .   III. Low Countries .   IV. Holy Roman Empire .   V. Eastern Europe .   VI. Italy . VII. British Isles .   VIII. Spain .   IX. Portugal .   X. Scandinavia . I. Introduction. The evidence of the relatively few surviving objects in metalwork from the period suggest that metalworkers were slow to adopt the Gothic idiom. Development during the 13th and 14th...

Carolingian metalwork

Carolingian metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,914 words
Illustration(s):
1

...metalwork The revival of metalworking in the Carolingian period was brought about by the reform and enrichment of the liturgy under Charlemagne. The revised liturgy required more sacred vessels, the most important manuscripts needed lavish book covers, and many churches were now wealthy enough to commission works of the highest quality. An increasing interest in relics, encouraged by Charlemagne, necessitated elaborate reliquaries to house them. Around his own court in Aachen, Charlemagne revived the craft of monumental bronze-casting on a scale...

Ottonian metalwork

Ottonian metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...metalwork The only example of goldsmithswork to have survived from the reign of Otto I is the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire (Vienna, Schatzkam.), made probably in Mainz between 955 and 962 and in 1024 fitted with a new arch commissioned by Conrad II . In the second half of the 10th century important works, some of which show Byzantine influence, no doubt mediated by Otto II’s Constantinopolitan wife, Theophano ( c. 950–91 ), were produced in various episcopal workshops. Among these was the Egbert shrine, also called the portable altar...

plumber’s metalwork

plumber’s metalwork   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...metalwork Sheet metal work undertaken by a plumber, includes dressing roofs, fitting flashings, and...

Anglo-Saxon metalwork

Anglo-Saxon metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,861 words
Illustration(s):
1

...although in general it seems unwise to assign metalwork of this period to particular regional groups. The tendency towards uniformity becomes even more marked in the metalwork of the 9th century, when the Trewhiddle style ( see Trewhiddle hoard ) became the predominant decorative style. Well before the middle of the century this distinctive style of ornament, well dated from its occurrence in coin hoards and on objects associated with historical figures, became current on secular and ecclesiastical metalwork from the Scottish borders to Cornwall. A natural...

Mining and Metalwork

Mining and Metalwork   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,295 words

...and Metalwork . The earliest evidence for Mesoamerican metallurgy appears about 600 ce in what is known as the west Mexican metalworking zone. The west Mexican metalworking zone includes the modern-day Mexican states of Guerrero, Michoacán, Jalisco, Colima, and Nayarit, and the southern portion of the state of Mexico. This zone is rich in mineral resources. The metalworking zone contains deposits of copper ore minerals such as malachite, azurite, chalcopyrite, and bornite; it also contains deposits of arsenopyrite, the most common ore of arsenic; of...

Early Christian metalwork

Early Christian metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Mittelalterliche Kunst aus dem staatlichen Kunstmuseum Tbilisi (Vienna, 1981) J. C. Waldbaum : Metalwork from Sardis: The Finds through 1974 (Cambridge, MA, 1983) M. Mundell Mango : Silver from Early Byzantium: The Kaper Koraon and Related Treasures (Baltimore, MD, 1986) C. Mango : ‘La Croix dite de Michel le Cérulaire et la Croix Saint-Michel de Sykeon’, Cah. Archéol. , xxxvi (1988), pp. 41–9 Y. Ikonomaki-Papadopoulos : ‘Church Metalwork’, Sinai, Treasures of the Monastery of Saint Catherine , ed. K. A. Manaphes (Athens, 1990), pp....

metalwork, gold and silver

metalwork, gold and silver   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
893 words

..., gold and silver . Gold and silver are precious metals which have been used in Scotland since prehistoric times ( see culture: 1 ) to make vessels, jewellery, and ornaments. The craftsmen who worked these metals referred to themselves as goldsmiths, although the majority of their wares were made of silver. There are specific references to goldsmiths in Scotland from at least the 13th century, when they were concentrated in the growing burghs ( see urban settlement: 1 ). From the earliest days Edinburgh was the main centre for the trade, but other...

metalwork, Roman, barbarian, and post-Roman

metalwork, Roman, barbarian, and post-Roman   Reference library

Heather Hunter-Crawley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., Roman, barbarian, and post-Roman Metals known and worked in Late Antiquity include: gold ; silver ; iron ; tin ; lead; and copper . They were used to make tools, arms and armour , plate, jewellery , coinage , and furnishings. Metalworking techniques were refined throughout the Classical period, and Late Antiquity featured new developments, particularly the use of niello , a black powder consisting of silver sulphide. Formerly, the evidence was limited to literary allusions and depictions of manufacturing processes, but 20th-century...

metalwork

metalwork   Quick reference

New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
137 words

... • berk , berserk, Burke, cirque, dirk, Dunkirk, erk, irk, jerk, kirk, lurk, mirk, murk, outwork, perk, quirk, shirk, smirk, stirk, Turk, work • Selkirk • Falkirk • Atatürk • patchwork • handwork • waxwork • artwork , part-work • craftwork • headwork • legwork • metalwork • guesswork • fretwork , network • breastwork • daywork • spadework • framework • brainwork • casework , lacework • paintwork • beadwork • fieldwork • needlework • teamwork • piecework • brickwork • handiwork • bodywork • basketwork • donkeywork • telework • clockwork...

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