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metallurgy

The branch of engineering concerned with the production of metals from their ores, the purification of metals, the manufacture of alloys, and the use and performance of metals in ...

metallurgy

metallurgy ([De])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
12 words

... [De] Metalworking in all its aspects; the art of working...

metallurgy

metallurgy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... The study of metals involving the physics, chemistry, and all engineering...

metallurgy

metallurgy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
52 words

...metallurgy The branch of engineering concerned with the production of metals from their ores, the purification of metals, the manufacture of alloys, and the use and performance of metals in engineering practice. Process metallurgy is concerned with the extraction and production of metals, while physical metallurgy concerns the mechanical behaviour of...

metallurgy

metallurgy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
53 words

... The branch of applied science concerned with the production of metals from their ores, the purification of metals, the manufacture of alloys, and the use and performance of metals in engineering practice. Process metallurgy is concerned with the extraction and production of metals, while physical metallurgy concerns the mechanical behaviour of...

metallurgy

metallurgy   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
41 words

... Science and technology concerned with metals. Metallurgy includes the study of: methods of extraction of metals from their ores; physical and chemical properties of metals; alloy production, and the hardening, strengthening, corrosion-proofing and electroplating of metals. See also anodizing ; ...

metallurgy

metallurgy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...metallurgy The study of the atomic, crystallographic, microstructural, mechanical, and physical properties of metallic elements and alloys and their applications. Now part of materials science...

metallurgy

metallurgy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...metallurgy The study of the metals. It includes the processes of extraction, refining, alloying, and fabrication of metals as well the study of their properties and structure. ...

metallurgy

metallurgy   Reference library

Thomas Hofmeier

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... In Late Antiquity it is difficult to identify metallurgy as a distinct science since theoretical concepts about metals belonged to so many different disciplines ( philosophy , natural history, medicine , pharmacy ) and because it is not clearly distinguishable from the studies of minerals, precious stones , dyes , etc.—in practice, theoretical metallurgy is included in alchemy . Outside the context of alchemy, interest in metals was mainly practical ( mining , smelting, and casting) rather than theoretical, until Georgius Agricola struggled for...

metallurgy

metallurgy   Reference library

Jonathan C. Edmondson

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,293 words

...under individual metals. O. Davies , Roman Mines in Europe (1935); R. J. Forbes , Metallurgy in Antiquity (1950), revised as Stud. Anc. Technol. 8, 9; J. Ramin , La Technique minière et métallurgique des anciens (1977); J. F. Healy , Mining and Metallurgy in the Greek and Roman World (1978; rev. It. trans. 1992); W. A. Oddy (ed.), Aspects of Early Metallurgy (1980); R. F. Tylecote , A History of Metallurgy , 2nd edn. (1992), and The Early History of Metallurgy in Europe (1987); P. T. Craddock , in J. P. Oleson (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of...

Metallurgy

Metallurgy   Reference library

Paul T. Craddock and Dorothy Hosler

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
3,446 words

... Metallurgy in the Old World Metallurgy in the Americas Metallurgy: Metallurgy in the Old World Metals, together with ceramics, were the first synthetic materials, and their production was at the forefront of human technical development. The ever-increasing reliance on tools and weapons impinges on many other areas beyond the purely technical, including the very organization of society itself. Ancient mines and smelting places are now being recognized and investigated in increasing numbers around the world. The debris of production, the slags, fragments...

metallurgy

metallurgy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
934 words

... may be defined as the extraction of metals from their ores, their working and processing, the study of their structure and the development of alloys. Although metals had been extracted and shaped for thousands of years, it was not until the sixteenth century that Georgius Agricola , a physician working in a German mining district, codified known metallurgical processes. His posthumous publication, De re metallica ( 1556 ), became an important text for later metallurgists, although it was based on theory and observation rather than on practical...

Metallurgy

Metallurgy   Reference library

Alice-Mary Talbot and Alexander Kazhdan

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
328 words

... , the extraction of metals from their ores, normally at sites near mines . The metal was then formed into ingots ( mazia ) which were sold to smiths for fabrication into metal objects. Iron Ironmaking in the Roman period was often divided into two states, roasting and smelting. Crushed iron ore was roasted in open furnaces, with wood as fuel, to remove excess water or carbon dioxide. The roasted ore was then smelted, at a higher heat, in small furnaces, using charcoal as fuel. The resulting spongy mass of iron was then alternately hammered and...

Metallurgy

Metallurgy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,111 words
Illustration(s):
1

...R. F. , and B. J. J. Gilmour . The Metallography of Early Ferrous Tools and Edged Weapons . Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1986. Williams, Alan . The Knight and the Blast Furnace: A History of the Metallurgy of Armour in the Middle Ages & the Early Modern Period . Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2003. Williams, Alan . “The Metallurgy of Medieval Arms and Armour.” In A Companion to Medieval Arms and Armour , edited by David Nicolle , pp. 45–54. Woodbridge, U.K.: Boydell, 2002. Robert Douglas...

Metallurgy

Metallurgy   Reference library

R. URIARTE AYO

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
3,924 words

...which are much more difficult to observe and to control. This method laid the technical foundations of modern metallurgy, and its productive possibilities, until then limited by the shortage of native metals deposits, were increased. It is difficult to determine in what way and at what moment early metallurgy spread through different cultures and geographical areas. Nevertheless, it is known that by 3000–2500 bce copper metallurgy extended over an extensive area that stretched from the Iberian Peninsula in western Europe to China on the Asian continent....

metallurgy, forensic

metallurgy, forensic   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Forensic Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Science and technology, Law
Length:
219 words

..., forensic The analysis of metal objects and structures in a forensic context, typically part of or closely associated with forensic engineering. Steel is often the subject of forensic metallurgical analysis since steel is so commonly used as a structural component in everything from planes to buildings. Forensic metallurgy was used in the investigation of the crash of TWA flight 800 (in the Atlantic Ocean near New York City) in 1996 where there was considerable doubt early in the investigation as to what caused the centre fuel tank to explode....

powder metallurgy

powder metallurgy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...powder metallurgy A process for the fabrication of components by the compaction of metal powders in a die and subsequent densification by sintering or hot pressing. It produces components with near net shape, intricate features, and good dimensional precision, thereby reducing or eliminating the need for machining. It is widely used, for example, for the production of cemented carbide tools, gears, porous metal bearings, electrical contacts, and hard...

powder metallurgy

powder metallurgy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
116 words

...powder metallurgy A process in which powdered metals or alloys are pressed into a variety of shapes at high temperatures. The process started with the pressing of powdered tungsten into incandescent lamp filaments in the first decade of this century and is now widely used for making self-lubricating bearings and cemented tungsten carbide cutting tools. The powders are produced by atomization of molten metals, chemical decomposition of a compound of the metal, or crushing and grinding of the metal or alloy. The parts are pressed into moulds at pressures ranging...

powder metallurgy

powder metallurgy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
121 words

...metallurgy A process in which powdered metals or alloys are pressed into a variety of shapes at high temperatures. The process started with the pressing of powdered tungsten into incandescent lamp filaments in the first decade of the 20th century and is now widely used for making self-lubricating bearings and cemented tungsten carbide cutting tools. The powders are produced by atomization of molten metals, chemical decomposition of a compound of the metal, or crushing and grinding of the metal or alloy. The parts are pressed into moulds at pressures...

Metals, Metallurgy

Metals, Metallurgy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
677 words

...Metallurgy By its geography, the West did not possess the same mineral resources as the Roman Empire. Though much richer in iron, particularly in the regions of central and northern Europe, it lost the important deposits of the Iberian peninsula, never really brought back into production after the Reconquest , and had access to the trade in Oriental and African metals only through the intermediary of the Muslim world. Meanwhile the collapse of commercial and adsrative structures put an end to the centralized organisation of metallurgical production in...

metals and metallurgy

metals and metallurgy   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
643 words

...Mines, carrières, et métallurgie dans la France médiévale ’, Actes du Colloque de Paris, 19, 20, 21 juin 1980 (1983). I. Blanchard , Mining, Metallurgy, and Minting in the Middle Ages , 3 vols (2001–5). R. Francovich , ed., Archeologia della attività estrattive e metallurgiche (1993). Theophilus , The Various Arts: De Diversis Artibus , tr. C. R. Dodwell (1986). R. F. Tylecote , The Early History of Metallurgy in Europe ...

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