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Overview

mental illness

A disputed concept (see, for example, the entries elsewhere in this dictionary on Laing and anti-psychiatry) founded on the everyday contrast between mind and body which, when applied to ...

mental illness

mental illness n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... illness n. Another name for mental disorder , with medical connotations that some consider misleading or...

mental illness

mental illness   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and bipolar disorder . In the legal context, reference to mental illness in the Mental Health Act ( 1983 ) was removed with the amendments introduced by the Mental Health Act ( 2007 ) ( see mental disorder ). However, no definition of mental illness was provided in the 1983 Act, in part because there was an assumption that the presentation of someone who is suffering from mental illness is obvious and the obvious did not need to be defined. This means that the definition of mental illness is established operationally by the clinical judgement made in...

mental illness

mental illness   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
147 words

... illness a disorder of one or more of the functions of the mind (such as mood, affect, perception, memory, or thought), which causes suffering to the patient or others. Symptoms of mental illness may be dimensional and only become pathological if at the severe end of the spectrum. Some mental illnesses are syndromes, which are characterized by a set of different symptoms that rarely all happen at once. Mental illness should be distinguished from learning disability , in which an individual has a general failure of development of the normal intellectual...

mental illness

mental illness   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
115 words

...mental illness A condition or disorder that affects people’s thinking, mood, and behaviour. It can take many different forms. Some mental illnesses appear to have gendered patterns. Women are more likely to be diagnosed with depression and anxiety, while men are more likely to manifest substance abuse and anti-social behaviour. It is unclear to what extent this relates to prevalent gender norms and expectations regarding gender. As gender researchers have shown, mental illnesses have culturally specific contexts and diagnoses. Hysteria, for example, was an...

mental illness

mental illness n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Nursing (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
46 words

... illness n. a disorder of one or more of the functions of the mind, which causes suffering to the patient or others. Mental illnesses are broadly categorized as psychoses, in which the capacity for appreciating reality is lost, or neuroses, in which it is...

mental illness

mental illness   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
911 words

... illness A disputed concept (see, for example, the entries elsewhere in this dictionary on Laing and anti-psychiatry) founded on the everyday contrast between mind and body which, when applied to illness, generates an opposition between two contrasting types of illnessmental and physical. Mental illnesses are illnesses characterized by the presence of mental pathology: that is, disturbances of mental functioning, analogous to disturbances of bodily functioning. Like physical illness the concept is, therefore, fundamentally evaluative and linked to issues...

Mental Illness.

Mental Illness.   Reference library

Ellen Dwyer

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
581 words

...attacked what they called the “myth of mental illness.” Mental illness, they argued, was primarily a social, not a medical, label attached to anomalous or nonconforming behavior. By the 1990s, however, in both professional and popular discourse, this perspective had been swamped by a resurgent biological psychiatry that emphasized the somatic bases of serious mental illnesses and responded to psychic symptoms with powerful drug therapies. See also Eugenics ; Hospitals ; Medicine ; Mental Health Institutions ; Mental Retardation ; Psychology ; ...

mental illness

mental illness   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
104 words

... illness It is reasonably clear that there can be chronic mental malfunction, when people’s capacities to respond to the world, to absorb and remember information, respond with appropriate emotions, and form coherent plans are impaired. What is not so clear is that the mind can be the self-contained locus of an illness, or whether mental malfunction should always be thought of as the by-product of physical or bodily illness or impairment or whether sometimes the arrow of causation goes the other way. The interpretation may determine whether a subject is...

mental illness

mental illness   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... illness A disorder of one or more functions of the mind resulting in the patient or others suffering. It does not include those conditions where the only problem is that the individual does not conform to the behavioural norms of society, nor does it include conditions of subnormality, where the individual has a general failure of normal intellectual...

Mental Illness

Mental Illness   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI); evidence-based practice; recovery movement; comorbidity; mental health Mental illness touches most American families when one considers that in any given year almost one-quarter of the U.S. adult population has a diagnosable mental disorder. Of these adults, 5–6% are considered seriously mentally ill ( SMI ), with almost 3% having a serious and persistent mental illness ( SPMI ) (Kessler, Berglund, Glantz et al., 2004 ). The Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health (U.S. Public Health Service, 1999 )...

Mental Illness

Mental Illness   Reference library

Laura D. Hirshbein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Illness Physicians, popular writers, and laypeople employed a wide and changing vocabulary to describe mental distress in the past two centuries. Serious mental illness was generally referred to as insanity until the early twentieth century, and late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century psychiatrists described conditions they labeled as manic-depressive psychosis, dementia praecox (or schizophrenia), and involutional melancholia within hospital settings. Medical writers outside of institutions often used terms such as nervous disease and neurasthenia to...

mental illness

mental illness   Reference library

Harvey Wickham, Peter McGuffin, and Robin M. Murray

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
4,070 words
Illustration(s):
1

...all the hospital beds in Britain and in most other industrialized nations. Arguments continually rage over the exact limits of mental illness. Some authorities regard the concept of mental illness as a myth while others, by contrast, consider that the majority of seemingly normal people suffer, often unknowingly, from psychiatric abnormalities amenable to treatment. Furthermore, some believe that psychiatric disorders are simply mental equivalents of physical diseases, while others argue that there are as many sorts of psychological problems as there are...

Mental Illness

Mental Illness   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
455 words

... Illness Mental Illness see also Madness , Mind In psychoanalysis nothing is true except the exaggerations. Theodor Adorno 1903 – 69 German philosopher , sociologist , and musicologist Minima Moralia (1951) Psychoanalysis pretends to investigate the Unconscious. The Unconscious by definition is what you are not conscious of. But the Analysts already know what's in it—they should, because they put it all in beforehand. Saul Bellow 1915 – 2005 American novelist The Dean's December (1982) Diseases of the soul are both more dangerous and...

Rethink Mental Illness

Rethink Mental Illness   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Mental Illness A mental health charity whose overall goal is a better life for people with mental illness . It provides information and advice, organizes services and groups, and undertakes campaigns. It has a wide range of informative factsheets on its website. https://www.rethink.org Official site of Rethink Mental Illness...

mental health illness

mental health illness   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gangs

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Law
Length:
84 words

... health illness A psychological impairment or condition. Common ones include depression, anxiety, and stress. Less common ones are schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. They can emerge at different points across the life-course, at times in relation to trauma. A limited body of research indicates that gang members have reported symptoms of certain mental health illnesses. Further reading: E. Alleyne and J. L. Wood , ‘Gang involvement: Psychological and behavioral characteristics of gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang...

mental health and illness

mental health and illness   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
577 words

... health and illness *Hagiography , chronicles, and other texts offer considerable evidence that serious mental illnesses were present in the MA. Medieval understanding of these illnesses was shaped by cultural factors, such as believing that one is being influenced by a demon, but the core features, such as the occurrence of auditory hallucinations or delusions of external influence, remain stable across cultures. Usually recognized by their peers as mentally ill, afflicted individuals were often recipients of miraculous cures in hagiographical texts, items...

Asylums and Mental Illness

Asylums and Mental Illness   Reference library

Nancy Tomes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...from mental illness, the prison has replaced the mental hospital as the most likely destination. In 2006 the Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that half of all prison inmates reported symptoms of mental illness, for which they received no treatment. [ See also Dix, Dorothea ; Health and Fitness ; Homelessness and Vagrancy ; Hospitals and Dispensaries ; Prisons and Penitentiaries ; Public Health ; and Rush, Benjamin . ] bibliography Gamwell, Lynn, and Nancy Tomes. Madness in America: Cultural and Medical Perceptions of Mental Illness before...

genetics of mental illness

genetics of mental illness   Reference library

Harvey Wickham, Peter McGuffin, and Robin M. Murray

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,014 words

...genetics have given us the ability to directly search for genes predisposing to mental illness. Two strategies have been employed to find these genes: linkage and association studies. Linkage studies look for DNA regions that co-segregate with the illness within families with several affected members. These studies do not require the disease process to be understood, which is fortunate given the shortfall in our knowledge of the biological basis of mental illnesses. Clues to the location of predisposing genes can be used to narrow the search down to a...

Mental Health and Mental Illness

Mental Health and Mental Illness   Reference library

Joseph Melling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,295 words
Illustration(s):
1

...“mentally ill.” The history of mental illness, beyond mental institutions, encompasses a wide range of topics. The professionalization of psychiatry in the nineteenth century increased the effort to define a variety of mental illnesses, not all of which required institutionalization. Certain kinds of illnesses also seemed to have increased in modern societies. Thus in the West, psychosomatic paralysis became increasingly common during the nineteenth century, mainly among women, only to decline rapidly by 1920 . Anorexia nervosa is another mental illness that...

mental illness, photography and the study of

mental illness, photography and the study of   Reference library

Jens Jaeger

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
746 words

... illness, photography and the study of . The photography of mental illness can be defined as the practice—usually in clinics or similar institutions—of depicting people whose behaviour has been deemed markedly abnormal by their contemporaries. The pictures once served to document case histories, but occasionally also as therapeutic instruments. Both in publications and by themselves they were used as illustrations and as tools of teaching and research. As early as the end of the 18th century there was considerable interest in the precise depiction of...

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