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meiosis

A type of nuclear division that gives rise to four reproductive cells (gametes) each with half the chromosome number of the parent cell. Two consecutive divisions occur. In the first, ...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
14 words

... Figure of speech in which the importance of something is understated. Compare litotes...

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The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
53 words

... An understatement, sometimes ironical or humorous and intended to emphasize the size, importance, and so on of what is belittled. Except in litotes , which is a form of meiosis, the use of meiosis is chiefly colloquial (e.g. ‘He's doing all right out of it’; ‘That must be worth a few...

meiosis

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The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
53 words

... An understatement, sometimes ironical or humorous and intended to emphasize the size, importance, and so on of what is belittled. Except in litotes , which is a form of meiosis, the use of meiosis is chiefly colloquial (e.g. ‘He's doing all right out of it’; ‘That must be worth a few...

meiosis

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Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
95 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ( reduction division ) n. a type of cell division that produces four daughter cells, each having half the number of chromosomes of the original cell. It occurs before the formation of sperm and ova and the normal ( diploid ) number of chromosomes is restored after fertilization. Meiosis also produces genetic variation in the daughter cells, brought about by the process of crossing over . Meiosis consists of two successive divisions, each divided into four stages ( see prophase ; metaphase ; anaphase ; telophase ). (See illustration.) Compare ...

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A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
33 words

...meiosis n. ( adj. meiotic ) A type of cell division (reduction division) that produces four daughter cells, each having half the number of chromosomes of the original cell. Compare mitosis...

meiosis

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Chris Baldick

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... , a figure of speech that belittles what it describes; or an understatement. Landlord of England art thou now, not king ( Richard II 2.1.113) Chris...

Meiosis

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (Greek, ‘lessening’) A figure of speech by which an impression is deliberately given that a thing is of less size or importance than it actually is. An example is the typical English understatement ‘rather good’, said of something that is excellent, or ‘rather a setback’, said of a major disaster. A famous modern meiosis was Harold Macmillan ’s little local difficulty . In biology, the term denotes a type of cell division in which four new cells are created, each containing half the number of chromosomes of the original. Meiosis is essential for sexual...

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A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...meiosis The specialized form of nuclear division that produces haploid gametes from the tetraploid parent cell in which chromosomes have been replicated. It involves two successive nuclear divisions (meiosis I and II) with no chromosome replication between them. Each meiotic division can be divided into four phases, as in mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase). The four daughter cells receive only one of each homologous chromosome pair, with the maternal and paternal chromosomes being distributed randomly between the cells, thereby segregating...

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...meiosis Cell division unique to gonads in which pairs of chromosomes in germ cell precursors are segregated into the two daughter (i.e., haploid) cells, a complex two-stage process of division that leads to formation of male and female gametes that will transmit hereditary characteristics to the next generation after fertilization. In humans, only oocytes in the ovaries and spermatocytes in the testes undergo meiosis. ...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
77 words

... The process of cell division that reduces the chromosome number from diploid (pairs) to haploid (single set). The first division halves the chromosome number in the cells; the second then forms four haploid ‘daughter’ cells. In most higher organisms, the resulting haploid cells are the gametes , ova and sperm . In this way, meiosis enables the genes from both parents to combine in a single cell without increasing the overall number of chromosomes. See also mitosis ; ...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... [ my- oh -sis ] ( plural -oses ) The Greek term for understatement or ‘belittling’: a rhetorical figure by which something is referred to in terms less important than it really deserves, as when Mercutio in Romeo and Juliet calls his mortal wound a ‘scratch’. Usually the effect is one of irony or anticlimax , but it may be disparaging, as when a writer is called a scribbler. The favoured form of meiosis is litotes , in which an affirmation is made indirectly by denying its opposite, e.g. it was no mean feat . Adjective : meiotic...

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...half of the genetic material or chromosome number of the original cell. This halving of the chromosome number (2 n to n ) compensates for its doubling when the gametes ( n + n ) unite (2 n ) during sexual reproduction. Compare mitosis . http://www.johnkyrk.com/meiosis.html Meiosis...

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
157 words

... The process of division of sex cells, resulting in the formation of gametes (eggs or sperm cells). In meiosis the nucleus undergoes two separate divisions, but the chromosomes are duplicated only once. So the four daughter cells each possess only half the chromosomes of the parent cell. When the egg and sperm, each with half a complement of chromosomes, unite, the two halves join together, resulting in a fertilized egg with the full number of chromosomes. This is a principal source of the difference between offspring and parents. During meiosis the...

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A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Psychiatry
Length:
144 words
Illustration(s):
1

...producing four haploid cells. Also called reduction division . Compare mitosis . 2. A figure of speech characterized by understatement or litotes. meiotic adj. [From Greek meiosis diminution, from meion less + -osis indicating a process or state] Meiosis . Stages in a cell containing two pairs of homologous...

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A Dictionary of Nursing (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
57 words

... ( reduction division ) [my- oh -sis] n. a type of cell division that produces four daughter cells, each having half the number of chromosomes of the original cell. It occurs before the formation of sperm and ova and the normal (diploid) number of chromosomes is restored after fertilization. Compare mitosis . —meiotic [my- ot -ik] ...

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The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Meiosis [Stress: ‘my-OH-sis’] . In rhetoric , a kind of understatement that dismisses or belittles, especially by using terms that make something seem less significant than it really is or ought to be: for example, calling a serious wound a scratch , or a journalist a hack or a scribbler . Compare litotes . ...

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A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
114 words
Illustration(s):
1

...meiosis ( reduction division ) A type of nuclear division that gives rise to four reproductive cells (gametes) each with half the chromosome number of the parent cell. Two consecutive divisions occur. In the first, homologous chromosomes become paired and may exchange genetic material ( see crossing over ) before moving away from each other into separate daughter nuclei. This is the actual reduction division because each of the two nuclei so formed contains only half of the original chromosomes. The daughter nuclei then divide by mitosis and four ...

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Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
252 words

... or reduction division a process by which the nucleus of a diploid cell divides twice with the formation of four daughter haploid cells, each containing half the number of chromosomes of the parent nucleus. Meiosis occurs during the formation of gametes from diploid cells and at the beginning of haplophase in those organisms that exhibit alternation of generations. Meiosis involves two rounds of cell division. Prophase in the first division proceeds as follows. Chromosomes first become visible as elongated threads during leptotene ; by this time each...

Meiosis

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Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
5,059 words
Illustration(s):
4

...visibly double. Figure 2. How Meiosis Halves Chromosome Numbers.Each unreplicated chromosome consists of a single linear double-stranded DNA molecule represented by a single thick vertical line, and its centromere (C) by a black oblong. In normal eukaryotic cell division by mitosis (A), every nuclear and cell division is preceded by a DNA replication that occurs during the DNA synthesis period (S) in the preceding growth phase of the cell's reproductive cycle. In meiosis, two successive nuclear divisions (meiosis I [B] and meiosis II [C]) occur without...

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A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
629 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The process occurs during gamete formation in animals or during spore formation in plants and Protozoa. The first stage of the first division of meiosis is often called prophase I and for convenience it has been divided into the leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, and diakinesis stages; these are not distinct and grade into each other. Chromosomes first appear in the first stage (leptotene) of meiosis, as single threads. The two homologous members of each chromosome pair associate side by side with corresponding loci adhering together: this is...

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