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Overview

medium-neutral citation

Subject: Law

A system of legal citation that does not depend on a particular publisher (e.g. ALR or CLR) or platform (paper reports or online). Law librarians encourage its use in judgments ...

medium-neutral citation

medium-neutral citation   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
127 words

...medium-neutral citation ( MNC ) A system of legal citation that does not depend on a particular publisher (e.g. ALR or CLR) or platform (paper reports or online). Law librarians encourage its use in judgments and academic writing but there are obstacles to using only MNC (e.g. the High Court allows citation of its decisions in a medium-neutral way when they have been published online but not printed (in CLR), but in proceedings before the Court, the CLR citation is required). Providing parallel MNC citations along with official reports is recommended....

medium-neutral citation

medium-neutral citation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A system of legal citation that does not depend on a particular publisher (e.g. ALR or CLR) or platform (paper reports or online). Law librarians encourage its use in judgments ...
Citation of cases

Citation of cases   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
651 words

...neutral citation for its judgments in 1998 , beginning with the first judgment delivered in that year. ‘Medium-neutral’ means that the citation is not tied down to a particular publisher's series of law reports—nor, indeed, to a printed ‘hard copy’ at all. This followed the trend in Canada and many US states, which encouraged the use of medium-neutral citations for their judgments. Paragraph numbers were incorporated into the body of the Court's judgments for pinpoint citation. This is because electronic page references often differ, and may be lost...

Information technology

Information technology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,191 words

...and transcripts before making them available on the web. As a consequence of the increased availability of electronic copies of its judgments, the Court adopted paragraph numbering in its judgments from the beginning of 1998 to facilitate ‘medium neutralcitation of the Court's decisions: that is, citation that does not rely on the pagination of a document by a particular word processing or page layout application. The Court's case management system has been designed to facilitate future enhancements. If the Court approved it, much of the data held...

sign languages

sign languages   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,551 words

...often called “neutral space” because signs made within it are not articulated with respect to any landmarks on the body. Neutral space serves a key function within the pronominal system of ASL. Deictic pronouns are fairly straightforward: the first‐person pronoun is a point to the center of the signer's own chest, and reference to the addressee or to a nonaddressed participant is indicated by a point to that person. Reference to nonpresent referents is more interesting: the signer can refer to such referents by establishing “loci” within neutral space. To sign...

English

English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,001 words

...and Scandinavian people in Britain: ‘Nah naðer to farenne ne Wylisc man on Ænglisc lond ne Ænglisc on Wylisc’ (Neither Welshman to go on English land, nor English on Welsh: ordinance); ‘Gif Ænglisc man Deniscne ofslea’ (If an Englishman kills a Dane: Laws of Aethelred, both citations from c. 1000 ). However, by the time of the Norman Conquest, English was the name for all inhabitants of England, regardless of background. For many years after 1066 , the Normans were commonly distinguished from their English subjects as French , a dichotomy sustained in...

Fisher, Irving

Fisher, Irving (1867–1947)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,645 words

...causes (eugenics, econometrics, Prohibition, the compensated dollar, stamped scrip, a new world map projection) harmed his reputation. The most cited author in English-language articles in monetary economics and economic fluctuations in the 1920s, Fisher vanished entirely from citation lists in macroeconomics in the 1940s, neglected in debates centered on Keynes. He never pulled his theories together in a grand synthesis: his monetary economics was not cast in the general equilibrium framework of his dissertation, nor was it fully integrated with his work on...

Benjamin, Walter

Benjamin, Walter   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,945 words

...else was conveyed; language would be a more or less neutral vehicle of something essentially external to it. But, as a “medium,” language is itself a dynamic space “in” which something happens. Yet, what happens tends to disrupt the usual meaning of in; for this ostensibly well-defined, containing, and self-contained space of the medium consists precisely in the self parting company from itself by im-parting itself . In thus refusing the instrumentalist conception of language as a medium through which something is communicated by someone to ...

Benjamin, Walter

Benjamin, Walter   Reference library

Max Pensky, Margaret Cohen, and Samuel Weber

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,578 words
Illustration(s):
1

...else was conveyed; language would be a more or less neutral vehicle of something essentially external to it. But, as a “medium,” language is itself a dynamic space “in” which something happens. Yet, what happens tends to disrupt the usual meaning of in; for this ostensibly well-defined, containing, and self-contained space of the medium consists precisely in the self parting company from itself by im-parting itself . In thus refusing the instrumentalist conception of language as a medium through which something is communicated by someone to ...

Feature Journalism

Feature Journalism   Reference library

Steen Steensen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,220 words

...comment on a selection of articles written by a young writer who wondered if his writings were suited to get published, Harrington lamented that the articles were all descriptions of places. They lacked something crucial if they were to be good feature stories: “Not one human citation of zestful adventure had found its way into that dreary ledger of impression and observations; it was soggy as a loaf of bread without yeast” ( Harrington, 1925 , p. 202). Adventure and Reportage. What Harrington missed in the young writer’s stories was probably action . For a...

Copts

Copts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...attempt to make monks and anchorites a part of his struggle to unify the Egyptian church. Butler, Alfred J. The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty Years of the Roman Dominion . 2d ed., edited by P. M. Fraser , Oxford, 1978. The standard work on this subject, with full citation of sources; Fraser's addendum is largely bibliographic. Camplani, Alberto , ed. L'Egitto Cristiano: Aspetti e problemi in età tardo-antica . Studia Ephemeridis Augustinianum, 56. Rome, 1997. Excellent survey articles by seven scholars on theology, literature, monasticism,...

South Asian American Visual Culture and Representation

South Asian American Visual Culture and Representation   Reference library

Bakirathi Mani

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...notion that art is by definition neutral, exclusive, aesthetically transcendent, and autonomous.” 44 By explicitly foregrounding the difference of South Asian American visual cultures—the diverse aesthetic histories and multiplicity of media forms that each artist draws upon—such exhibitions demonstrate how the act of creating as well as of viewing South Asian American visual culture is critical to shifting representations of racialized immigrants. As the curator Karen Higa has noted, “Exhibitions are far from being neutral expressions of historical knowledge...

Conceptual Art

Conceptual Art   Reference library

Jacob Stewart-Halevy, Michael Baldwin, Charles Harrison, Mel Ramsden, Mary Kelly, and Yair Guttmann

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,663 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Around the cabinets, the four walls of the room were papered with a form of index, photographically enlarged from an original typescript so as to cover the entire surface available. The index provided an individual listing for each text included. Under each of some 350 separate citations, the various other texts were designated under one or another of three possible relations to the text cited. These relations were symbolized as “+,” signifying a relationship of compatibility between a given pair of texts; “−,” signifying a relationship of incompatibility; and...

Vygotsky’s Theoretical and Conceptual Contributions to Qualitative Research in Education

Vygotsky’s Theoretical and Conceptual Contributions to Qualitative Research in Education   Reference library

Ana Luíza Bustamante Smolka, Ana Lucia Horta Nogueira, Débora Dainez, and Adriana Lia Friszman de Laplane

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
10,436 words

...Vygotsky, 1997a , pp. 71, 76) What can be searched for in the masters of Marxism beforehand is not a solution of the question, not even a working hypothesis […] but the method to develop it. I do not want to learn what constitutes the mind for free, by picking out a couple of citations, I want to learn from Marx’s whole method how to build a science, how to approach the investigation of the mind. ( Vygotsky, 1997c , p. 331) N.B.: The word history (historical psychology) for me means two things: (1) a general dialectical approach to things—in this sense, everything...

Literacy

Literacy   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
7,131 words

...or ownership of scrolls, tablets, or books to demonstrate the numbers or characteristics of actual readers. Scholars must rely on the direct references of past readers to their reading in marginalia, journals, letters—and, relatively recently, through printed references or citations. Inferences about reading can be made through lists of books recommended by those in authority over certain groups, as well as through prefaces by authors and printers who explain why they brought out new editions or reprintings. Historians can also cautiously infer reading when...

Agenda Setting and Journalism

Agenda Setting and Journalism   Reference library

Sebastián Valenzuela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words

...( Bennett & Iyengar, 2008 , p. 708) to highlight the popularity of the agenda-setting concept when studying the influence of journalists and the news they produce. As of May 2019 , the original article on agenda setting ( McCombs & Shaw, 1972 ) alone has over 11,000 citations in Google Scholar. And it may well be the only theory in journalism studies to have a scholarly journal entirely devoted to it, The Agenda Setting Journal . The popularity of agenda setting stems from a theoretical, methodological, and practical background. When first proposed...

Style

Style   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,178 words

...the same stream with the current of thought. A writer of genius conceives his subject strongly; his imagination is filled and impressed with it; and pours itself forth in that Figurative Language which Imagination naturally speaks” (Vol. 1, 4th ed., p. 231. London, 1790 ). This citation evinces crucial elements of the new Romantic poetic such as the expressive and organic nature of literary expression, which M. H. Abrams set forth in his study The Mirror and the Lamp ( 1953 ), but it does not as yet dispense with the notion of ornaments. This, however, is...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
11,891 words

...and cultural feminist, suggests the overdue death of “male culture” from its own technocratic hubris. The work is a revisionist rewriting of the Bible and thus a bold act of cultural critique. Finally, the prose-poem form of the work, its multiple discourses, and its collage and citation strategies, link this work to feminist experimental writing. Feminist readers thus have had a critical, though not, for the most part, formally radical poetry available throughout this time. This poetry has now been offered the literary-political accolade of...

Realism and Security

Realism and Security   Reference library

Stephen M. Walt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,705 words

...of Anarchy: A Disciplinary History of International Relations . Albany: State University of New York Press. Schmidt, B.C. , and Williams, M.C. (2006) The Bush Doctrine and the Iraq War: Neo-Conservatives versus Realists. At www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/5/3/5/2/pages153527/p153527-1.php , accessed May 2009. Schroeder, P. (1994) Historical Reality vs. Neorealist Theory. International Security 19 (1), 108–48. Schultz, K.A. (1999) Do Democratic Institutions Constrain or Inform? International Organization 53 (2), 233–66....

Assessment of Active Learning

Assessment of Active Learning   Reference library

Kay Gibson and Carolyn M. Shaw

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,786 words
Illustration(s):
3

...learning are often not aware of studies that have been done in other disciplines or in other geographic areas. Scholars from different countries are asking many of the same questions (and often coming up with similar answers), but their work is narrowly circulated and their citations are mostly those of other scholars from their own country. For this reason, the culmination of knowledge is advancing at a slower rate than it might if scholars were more aware of studies done in different regions and in other disciplines. Despite this caveat, there are several...

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