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medieval gardens

Gardens made in Europe between the collapse of the Roman Empire and 1500 (to take a slightly arbitrary date) are generally poorly documented. The beautiful illustrations which make modern ...

medieval gardens

medieval gardens   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...garden in the spring. A herb garden enclosed in brick walls has a pattern of square beds separated by paths. Gardeners are shown at work—holding a basket for weeds, training a plant against a wall, and discussing with the owner. A well, or dipping pool, is seen in one corner. Although there are very few surviving contemporary theoretical writings on medieval gardens the illustrations show something that remains for many people the chief delight of gardens—a love of plants and the pleasures of cultivating them. It is also worth saying that in later garden...

medieval gardens

medieval gardens  

Gardens made in Europe between the collapse of the Roman Empire and 1500 (to take a slightly arbitrary date) are generally poorly documented. The beautiful illustrations which make modern books ...
medieval garden

medieval garden   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
353 words

... garden European monasteries incorporated buildings with cloisters , the roofed ambulatory around the garth derived from the Roman atrium surrounded by a peristyle : Early-Christian religious foundations had such attributes, and herb- and vegetable-gardens were part of C6 Benedictine monastic establishments. Under Charlemagne (Roman Emperor 800–14) the Capitulare de Villis ( c. 800) contained information on gardens: the famous idealized C9 plan in the Benedictine Abbey of St Gall, Switzerland doubtless owed something to the Capitulare ,...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Country Houses ( 1982 ), with a postscript by John Martin Robinson , The Latest Country Houses ( 1984 ), which brings the story into the post‐war period. Complementing this series for the earlier period is Margaret Wood, The English Mediaeval House ( 1965 ), and Anthony Emery's comprehensive survey The Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales (3 vols, 1996 , 2000 , 2006 ). Mention must also be made of John Summerson , Architecture in Britain, 1530–1830 (9th edn, 1993 ), in which the country house plays a prominent role, and Nicholas Cooper...

Henry VI Part 1

Henry VI Part 1   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,505 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by Lord Strange’s Men at the Rose theatre, with London’s leading actor, Edward Alleyn , probably taking the part of Talbot. Henry was probably played by a boy actor. No further records of performance exist until a revival at Covent Garden on 13 March 1738 ‘by desire of several ladies of quality’. The Temple Garden quarrel and several other scenes from Part 1 were cannibalized by J. H. Merivale ’s romantic melodrama Richard Duke of York ( 1817 ), a star vehicle created for Edmund Kean . Osmond Tearle staged a fashionably spectacular production at...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Warton launched, the nature of medieval culture and its interpretation in modern times. While never offensively personal in his attacks on fellow scholars, Douce in the first half of his career plainly sought to revise Warton's accepting notion of the medieval heritage. His first major publication was his edition of the Dance of Death ( 1794 ), based on an edition of sixteenth-century illustrations wrongly attributed to Holbein and engraved in the seventeenth century by Hollar . In this version of the popular late medieval theme, thirty characters, most...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and family historians. Town life was an exotic importation from the Continent, both in Roman and in medieval times. Until the 18th century most British towns were small by Continental standards, and until the 19th century the majority of Britons still lived in rural settlements. Yet Britain then became the first country in the world to urbanize, rapidly outpacing its neighbours, and acting as a pioneer in developing new types of urban design such as garden cities . This historically very recent, but also decisive, change has had many effects upon British...

Richard II

Richard II   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...least avoided a ban, but soon disappeared from the repertory. Shakespeare’s original was revived at Covent Garden in 1738 , but after that had to wait until the 19th century before achieving anything like popularity. Edmund Kean played Richard in 1815 (in a text adapted by Richard Wroughton), and the role was occasionally taken by Macready , but the most successful production for many years was Charles Kean ’s in 1857 , staged with much medieval pomp which included an onstage presentation of Bolingbroke’s procession into London with Richard in his...

Welsh Local and Family History

Welsh Local and Family History   Quick reference

D. Huw Owen

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,425 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Folk Life , and the History Workshop Journal . The involvement of Welsh historians in cooperative ventures, for instance The Agrarian History of England and Wales , has proved fruitful. D. Walker's Medieval Wales ( 1990 ), published in the Cambridge Medieval Textbooks series, provided an introduction to the main political developments of medieval Wales. The major publications of the Oxford University Press, which again facilitate the work of Welsh family and local historians, include W. Rees , South Wales and the March ( 1924 ), and R. R. Davies ,...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was being temporarily reversed and the world turned upside down (see Chris Humphrey , The Politics of Carnival: Festive Misrule in Medieval England (2001) ). Ritual also frequently and deliberately ‘moved’ objects out of their ‘proper’ place and then usually returned or discarded them within the time‐span of the observance; for example, the consecrated wafer, the host, was taken out of the church into the streets at the medieval feast of Corpus Christi ; one tree and masses of branches were brought out of the woods and into human settlements at May Day ; a...

Theatre

Theatre   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,088 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of 1737 . The patents subsequently became the property of successive owners of Covent Garden and Drury Lane playhouses, known as the major or patent theatres, who used them to justify a duopoly over spoken drama in the metropolis. Any challenge to the patent theatres was interpreted by their owners as a threat to the security of property rights in general and as an attack on the authority of the *monarch . The 1737 Licensing Act reinforced the power of Covent Garden and Drury Lane by restricting theatrical entertainment to Westminster and the royal...

The Two Noble Kinsmen

The Two Noble Kinsmen   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,335 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...consoling one another for their lost liberty with promises of eternal friendship when Palamon sees Emilia from the window, gathering flowers with her woman in the garden beneath. He falls in love with her, as does Arcite, and the two immediately quarrel as rivals for her. The Jailer takes Arcite away, released by Theseus but banished to Thebes, and takes Palamon to a cell with no view of the garden. 2.3 Arcite resolves to disguise himself so that he may remain near Emilia: learning from some countrymen of a sporting contest before Theseus, he decides to...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as scenery were characteristic features of the *picturesque , as discussed in the writings of William *Gilpin , Uvedale *Price , and Richard Payne *Knight . Overlying the antiquarian interest in medieval British history and archaeology was a Romantic fascination with the medieval age, with chivalry, heraldry and traditional festivities [ see *medievalism ], related in ancient British ballads and later in the novels of Walter *Scott . Indeed, George Bullock provided Scott's Abbotsford, reconstructed in Scottish Baronial style, with an eclectic mixture...

The First Part of the Contention of the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster

The First Part of the Contention of the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster   Reference library

Randall Martin, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,732 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...those who will disperse, invoking the patriotic memory of Henry V’s French conquests. Cade flees. 4.9 Henry pardons the rebels. York is reported to have returned from Ireland with his army, demanding the arrest of Somerset. 4.10 Cade, utterly famished, takes refuge in the Kentish garden of Alexander Iden, who fights and kills him. 5.1 Iden presents Cade’s head to Henry and is knighted. York and his sons Edward and Richard, backed by Salisbury and Warwick, openly challenge Henry and his supporters. 5.2 The first battle of St Albans. York kills Clifford, whose son...

Macbeth

Macbeth   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,275 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...remained one of Betterton’s greatest roles down to his retirement in 1709 . His most important successor in the part as reshaped by Davenant was James Quin , who played it at different times from 1717 (at Drury Lane ) until 1751 (by which time he had moved to Covent Garden ) , but by then his dignified, oratorical performance as Macbeth, and indeed the lucidly neoclassical script he was using, had been overshadowed by the arrival of David Garrick . In 1744 Garrick advertised Macbeth at Drury Lane ‘as written by Shakespeare’ (‘What does he...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...And like Egans's ‘sporting coves’, Clare and several friends went on pub-crawls; they admired the elegant Cyprian (harlot) ‘ladies of the town’ at Covent Garden; they took pride in joining the ‘Fancy’, the committed followers of the ring who avidly watched plebeian prizefighters like ‘Sailor Boy Jones’ fight at the Fives Court; they were dazzled by the fairy-tale splendour of the Vauxhall *pleasure gardens ; they placed bets at Tattersalls; they tried to visit the Beggar's Bush, a famous rogues' tavern and vaudeville at Holborn; and they exercised sensibility...

15 Children’s Books

15 Children’s Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and distinguished of the activity book genre. Faucher’s illustrators, many of them émigrés who had been members of the 1920s Soviet avant-garde, conceived illustrations that could be cut out to make stained-glass windows, magic lantern slides, tangrams, masks, and model gardens. Related to the activity book are publications in which the illustrations include cut-out figures that engage the child in dramatic play. The earliest examples are the S. and J. Fuller paper doll books issued in the 1810s : the head of the main character can be inserted on six...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...sections devoted to volcanoes—the plate by Robert of Vesuvius erupting in 1779 is especially striking. Some of the plates were engraved after Saint-Non’s own designs, and something of his devotion to creating this book can be gauged by his motto: ‘What flowers are to our gardens, the arts are to life.’ In 18 th -century England, black-and-white illustration in books became increasingly sophisticated with the growing mastery of the various metal techniques. In the first half of the century, the Opera of Horace illustrated by *Pine deserves special...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and tradesmen. It seemed also to have abdicated its traditional ideological work of marking social character and hierarchy. ‘There must be something radically wrong’, one critic wrote, ‘where the same sort of portico may be applied to the New Bedlam, Carlton House, Covent-garden Theatre, and Mary-Le-Bonne church.’ The press itself contributed to architecture's sameness, many felt, by being overly critical of innovation. Talent was further inhibited by the supposed want of taste in the middle class, the absence of sustained royal patronage, and the lack...

meadow garden

meadow garden  

In miniatures and tapestries depicting medieval gardens turf scattered with flowers, often of clearly identifiable species, is a common and most attractive image. In modern times meadow gardens have ...

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