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Overview

mask

N. a respirator used to filter inhaled air or to supply gas for inhalation. v. conceal (something) from view: the trees masked a depot. masked adj. ...

masks

masks   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
199 words

... were used in Greece and Rome in cult and in dramatic representations. Masks were often worn in the cult of Dionysus , and some ritual action centred on masks of Dionysus himself. The frightening gaze of the Gorgon is mask‐like. In Roman religion imagines , ancestral masks, were displayed in the atrium of a noble family and worn by the living at funerals (along with the mask of the newly deceased). Greek drama probably inherited the mask from Dionysiac ritual, but there are obvious dramaturgical advantages in the use of masks, esp. where the audience is...

masks

masks   Reference library

Richard A. S. Seaford

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
372 words

...terms of a frightening mask is the Gorgon . In Roman religion a notable use was of the imagines , ancestral masks displayed in the atrium of a noble family and worn by the living at funerals (along with the mask of the deceased). Whereas the Greek word for mask (πρόσωπον) also means face, the Latin persona probably derives from the Etruscan phersu , a masked figure, who is depicted in a 6th-cent. bc tomb. Greek drama probably inherited the mask from Dionysiac ritual, but there are obvious dramaturgical advantages in the use of masks, especially where the...

masks

masks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
600 words

...touch its face. In order to make the eyes, before the mask-maker bores through the finest Japanese cypress wood, out of which the mask is made, he must utter a prayer. According to tradition, it is at the point of being pierced that the mask becomes imbued with life and spirit. The mask, as a sacred object endowed with magic powers, was a feature of the mask rituals of Mexico. The vestiges of such beliefs have been revived by the mask-maker, El Zarco Guerrero , the creator of the contemporary Nagual mask, which is central to the masked dance that takes place...

masks

masks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
127 words

... In the ritual of some Greek gods, including Dionysus, masks were used although not necessarily worn ( see also Minerva ). It was probably from that source that they were taken over by Greek drama ( see Thespis ). They were worn by actors in all the important dramatic genres in Greece and in Rome ( see comedy [Roman 2] ), enabling the audience to recognize characters while being at some distance from the players, as was often the case, and actors to take on two or more roles. Masks were commonly made of stiffened linen, and covered the entire head. On...

masks

masks   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
368 words

...or demi-masks for their characters, and in the Japanese theatre masks have continued to play an important role in the noh plays. In the twentieth century masks have been mainly used in Shakespearean productions, although playwrights such as Brecht , Yeats , O'Neill and Arden called for them and directors such as Copeau , Saint-Denis and Devine have used them more widely. In Peter Hall 's 1981 production of the Oresteia all the characters wore full masks. alternative and street theatre also rediscovered the value of the mask in ...

Masks

Masks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Indian Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
820 words

...face either with masks or mask-like make-up. Masks are generally used in three ways. When the wearer totally identifies with the mask, its magic power seizes him and what he performs is more or less a ritual, sometimes classed as *possession . Here the mask serves the purpose of an instrument to re-enact some elemental experience by projecting and reflecting supernatural powers. But when the wearer realizes that by putting on the mask he has only changed his outward appearance and not his true self, ritual gives way to human drama. The mask is then a means of...

Masks

Masks   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,443 words

...neighbors. The kitchen mask whose moans warned the Aztec ruler of potential warfare exemplifies the latter function of the Mesoamerican mask. In addition to inheriting masks, Mesoamericans could appropriate masks belonging to others, thereby acquiring the sacred powers contained within them. Most masks owned by the Aztec elite were acquired as tribute or booty from successful military conquests. These could be in finished form or in the form of precious raw materials that were taken home to be crafted by state-sponsored carvers. Masks made of turquoise, in...

Masks

Masks   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...masks evolved into anthropoid inner coffins, first appearing in the twelfth dynasty. Hollow or solid masks (sometimes diminutive in size) were also created by pouring clay or plaster into a generic, often unisex, mold to which ears and gender-specific details were added. Masks became increasingly more sophisticated during the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period, when royalty were equipped with masks of beaten precious metal (like the solid gold mask of Tutankhamun or the series of gold and silver masks excavated at the necropolis of Tanis). Masks of...

Masks, Theatrical

Masks, Theatrical   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
509 words

..., Theatrical . The wearing of masks in the theatre derives from the use of animal skins and heads in primitive religious rituals. In the Greek theatre, masks served, in an all-male company, to distinguish between the male and female characters and to show the age and chief characteristic of each—hate, anger, fear, cunning, stupidity. In tragedy the mask gave dignity and a certain remoteness to demi-gods and heroes, and also enabled one actor to play several parts by changing his mask. In comedy the mask helped to unify the chorus (which, as can be seen in...

death masks and life masks

death masks and life masks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
319 words

...of SS Annunziata had a famous collection of them and although most are lost, the haunting death mask of Lorenzo il Magnifico has fortunately been preserved. Since then it has been quite a common practice to take death masks of the illustrious. The wax images of Queen Elizabeth I and other sovereigns in the Westminster Abbey collection are all based on death masks. Napoleon's and Goethe 's features are known to us through masks, as are those of Keats , whose mask was taken during life by B. R. Haydon . A curious variant is the plaster cast taken from the...

Masks, The Three

Masks, The Three   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Opera Characters (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
12 words

..., The Three ( Puccini : Turandot ). See Ping , Pang , and Pong...

Carnival Masks (Vejigantes)

Carnival Masks (Vejigantes) (1958)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Plays (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Masks ( Vejigantes ) Alternative title: Masquerade Author: Francisco Arriví Date/place of 1st performance: 1958 , San Juan, Puerto Rico Date of 1st publication: 1959 Date of 1st translation to English: 1976 Genre: Drama in 3 acts, Spanish prose Setting/time of action: A village during carnival, a house in San Juan, and a beach, c. 1910 and c. 1955 Cast: 7m, 3/4f, extras During the wild drumming and dancing of the carnival, Tona, a beautiful young black girl, is seduced by one of the masks, a Spaniard, who will live with Tona...

Masks and Masquerades in Africa

Masks and Masquerades in Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... and Masquerades in Africa Masking and masquerade traditions and practices among African peoples. Masks are face and body coverings that alter and transform the identities of the African performers wearing them. The term masquerade refers to rituals or performances involving masks and costumes. Most masks and costumes in Africa are physical representations of spirits, beings associated with spirits, or cultural heroes. They bridge the realms of humans and spirits through elaborate spectacles that combine music, dance, costumes, sculpture, and feasting....

masks

masks  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Representation of a human, animal, or fantastic face used in architectural ornament, often part of grotesque decoration. See mascaron.2 Label-stop (2) carved to resemble a head, called head- or ...
masking

masking n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... auditory masking , backward masking , binaural unmasking , brightness masking , central masking , critical band , dichoptic masking , inspection time , metacontrast , paracontrast , pattern masking , Perky phenomenon , subliminal perception , visual masking...

masking

masking   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... The act of concealing the existence of something by obstructing the view of...

masking

masking   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...components either in that note or another note. The extent to which masking occurs depends on the frequencies of the masker and maskee and their amplitudes. One particular feature of the masking phenomenon is that the masking effect is considerably greater for maskees that are above (rather than below) the frequency of the masker. This effect is often referred to as the upward spread of masking , or low masks high . ...

masking

masking   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...masking Concealing identity, as with the proverbial burglar's mask. In clinical trials, the process of withholding the identities of study subjects in treatment and control groups, usually described as “blinding.” The word “masking” is preferred to “blinding” by some clinical trial specialists on the grounds that “blinding” may be an emotive word. ...

mask

mask   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
38 words

... 1. Representation of a human, animal, or fantastic face used in architectural ornament, often part of grotesque decoration. See mascaron . 2. Label-stop ( 2 ) carved to resemble a head, called head- or mask-...

mask

mask   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
237 words

... ( matte ) 1. A partial covering, such as an iris mask or a keyhole mask, placed in front of the camera lens to create a frame within a frame or to change the shape of the image. 2. A partial shield placed behind the lens of a camera or film projector to achieve a widescreen image. 3. A partial covering placed in front of a camera lens to block out part of the image so that part of another image can be added later to present a composite picture ( see matte shot ; special effects ). Iris and keyhole masks were widely used in early cinema ....

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