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markedness

1. In linguistics and semiotics, the phenomenon, noted by Jakobson, in which one term and/or concept is highlighted as (markedly) different from another, as in the words ...

markedness

markedness   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
228 words

... The condition, quality, or state of being marked . The concept of markedness can be applied in many areas of language. Thus a simple declarative sentence (e.g. I love Lucy ) is unmarked in terms of its constituent order ( subject - predicator - direct object ), whereas I don’t love Lucy is marked for negation , and Do you love Lucy? is marked in having an interrogative clause structure. Similarly, Lucy I love has a marked constituent order involving topicalization . With nouns , verbs , adjectives , and other words that can be...

Markedness

Markedness   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,373 words

... . This entry includes the following subentries: Overview Markedness in Phonology Overview The concept of markedness in its most general characterization is concerned with the distinction between what is neutral, natural, or most expected ( unmarked ), and what departs from the neutral ( marked ) along some designated parameter. It was introduced in linguistics in the 1930s through the work of the Prague School, where it was developed in greatest detail by Trubetzkoy 1969 in his theory of phonology. Beyond this early work, the concept of markedness...

markedness

markedness   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,570 words

...attention. Thus, markedness both constitutes and represents deviance: the marked signifier is formally deviant in terms of its unmarked counterpart, just as the marked signified includes deviance within its very signification. Markedness is manifested in the relation between signifiers as a supplement, deficiency, or differentiation in form, and in that between signifieds as a narrowing or specializing of application. But there are no rules where signifiers are concerned to distinguish the original from the derived: markedness is for this reason...

markedness

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
572 words

... 1. In linguistics and semiotics , the phenomenon in which one term is highlighted as ( markedly ) different from another, as in the words male and female, where the former is literally unmarked and the latter is linguistically marked by the addition of an initial fe - (Jakobson). The unmarked form is typically dominant (e.g. statistically within a text or corpus) and is often used as a generic term while the marked form is used in a more specific sense. 2. (semiotics) The semantic weighting of concepts within binary oppositions (such as...

markedness reversal

markedness reversal   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
60 words

... reversal Any shift, over time or e.g. between dialects, in what is marked and what is unmarked. E.g. the construction of Nor had he vanished , with the verb in second position, is marked ( 3 ) in Modern English; that of Then he had vanished is unmarked. But the former derives from the unmarked order in Old...

markedness

markedness  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. In linguistics and semiotics, the phenomenon, noted by Jakobson, in which one term and/or concept is highlighted as (markedly) different from another, as in the words male/female, where the former ...
marked

marked   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... Of a linguistic feature ( 2 ) : distinguished in some way from the unmarked , more basic or central form to which it is related. The concept was originated by the Russian linguist Nikolay Trubetzkoy (1890–1938) in relation to phonology. •• marked focus : see focus . •• marked order anaphora : see anaphora . •• marked predicative complement : see complement . See also markedness...

marked

marked   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
244 words

... 1. Having a feature, or the positive value of a feature, as opposed to lacking it or having the negative value. Originally in phonology: e.g. a nasalized vowel in French is marked, as specifically ‘nasal’ or [+nasal], in opposition to an oral vowel, characterized negatively as ‘not nasal’ or [−nasal]. Thence in grammar: e.g. the plural cats is a marked form, with a suffix, in contrast to the singular cat . Thence too of categories; e.g. a past tense in English is marked, in many accounts, as [+past] or as used specifically in referring to past time,...

marked

marked   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... is pronounced /markt/ , as one syllable. The pronunciation / mar -kәd/ , in two syllables, is a vestige of the correct adverbial pronunciation / mar -kәd-lee/ . Language-Change Index marked mispronounced / mar -kәd/ instead of /markt/ : Stage...

marked footpath

marked footpath   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Travel and Tourism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
25 words

... footpath In the UK some footpaths are marked for the guidance of walkers. In the US these are known as trails or hiking...

marked cheque

marked cheque   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
52 words

... cheque A cheque that the bank on which it is drawn has marked ‘good for payment’, so that it is effectively a cash equivalent. This practice has been replaced in the UK by bank drafts , although it is still used in the USA, where such cheques are called certified checks...

marked-up copy

marked-up copy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
25 words

...-up copy MS or typescript copy prepared for printing. It may include both editorial and design mark-up from the *corrector (latterly, *copy editor or...

marked-to-market

marked-to-market   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...-to-market or mark-to-market . 1 The revaluation of a security, commodity , futures , or option contract or other negotiable asset position to its current market, or realizable, value ( cf. book cost ; book loss ). 2 For securities which require margin payments, a revaluation of the amount of margin owing or owed on a position as a result of changes in their value ( cf. collateral ; maintenance margin ; variation margin ). 3 In financial institutions, part of the process of measuring the impact of market risk on a position ( cf. hedge...

Marked and Unmarked Terms

Marked and Unmarked Terms   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Marked and Unmarked Terms (Originating in the work of the Russian linguist Nikolay Trubetzkoy ( 1890–1938 ) in relation to pairs of phonemes) . Terms in linguistics which designate a contrasting pair, one possessing a special ‘mark’, the other neutral: in play/played, play is unmarked and neutral, and played has the mark -ed . Similarly, host is unmarked, but hostess is morphologically marked for femaleness. The mark is not necessarily visible or audible: in the pair horse/mare , horse is the more general, unmarked term, while mare is...

marked

marked   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... is pronounced /markt/ , as one syllable. The pronunciation / mar -kəd/ , in two syllables, is a vestige of the correct adverbial pronunciation / mar -kəd lee/...

marked

marked   Quick reference

New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
123 words

... • abreact , abstract, act, attract, bract, compact, contract, counteract, diffract, enact, exact, extract, fact, humpbacked, hunchbacked, impact, interact, matter-of-fact, pact, protract, redact, refract, retroact, subcontract, subtract, tact, tract, transact, unbacked, underact, untracked • play-act • autodidact • artefact ( US artifact) • cataract • contact • marked , unremarked • Wehrmacht • affect , bisect, bull-necked, collect, confect, connect, correct, defect, deflect, deject, detect, direct, effect, eject, elect, erect, expect, infect,...

marked

marked adj   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary: English-Italian (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
4 words
markedly

markedly adv   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary: English-Italian (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
4 words
marked

marked adj   Reference library

Oxford Business French Dictionary: English-French

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
24 words
marked

marked adj   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Spanish Dictionary: English-Spanish (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
10 words

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