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malaria

A severe mosquito-borne protozoan infection of the blood and blood-forming organs causing recurrent bouts of high fever due to the destruction of red blood corpuscles by plasmodia, malaria ...

malaria

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A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
76 words

...malaria A disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Plasmodium , which requires two hosts, the bloodsucking female Anopheles mosquito and a human, in order to complete its complex life cycle. Symptoms of fever and anaemia in humans are caused by invasion and destruction of the red blood cells during an asexual phase of the life cycle. See apicomplexa . https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/malaria/index.html Coverage of all aspects of malaria, from the website of the US Centers for Disease Control and...

Malaria.

Malaria.   Reference library

Margaret Humphreys

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
300 words

...Malaria also played an important role on the early frontier, since the principal form of transportation, river travel, dictated prolonged exposure to wetland areas. By the twentieth century malaria, for a variety of environmental reasons, had retreated largely to the southern states. British physician Ronald Ross's discovery in 1897 that the anopheles mosquito transmitted malaria prompted southern towns in the early twentieth century to the destruction of mosquito larvae. A similar strategy of eradication eliminated the scourge of malaria from the ...

Malaria

Malaria   Reference library

Margaret Humphreys

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...day labor, that labor lived in town (where malaria had already been controlled). As a result, large populations were removed from the one-mile flight zone around many malaria breeding sites, breaking the chain of malaria transmission. World War II and New Tools for the Malaria Wars. By the time the United States entered the world war late in 1941 , malaria had disappeared as a major problem in the American South. Yet military and civilian public-health leaders feared an upsurge in the disease. They saw malaria as a disease of mysterious cycles, of peaks and...

malaria

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The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
179 words

...that almost no one, including herself, escaped the disease. Malaria hindered combatants on both sides during the War of 1812 and ravaged the men constructing the Rideau Canal from Kingston to Ottawa ( 1826–32 ). The latter constituted the northernmost occurrence of malaria in Canada. Because cultivation of land eliminated marshes that were mosquito breeding-grounds, malaria had largely disappeared by the 1850s. Occasional localized outbreaks occurred in Ontario into the 20th century. Now, malaria occurs only among travellers returning from malarial...

malaria

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Dionysios Stathakopoulos

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...long periods developed as a result thalassaemia, a type of anaemia that is antagonistic to the disease. In recent years malaria has been identified on human remains excavated in a 5th-century villa in central Italy . Dionysios Stathakopoulos M. D. Grmek , Diseases in the Ancient Greek World (1989). R. Sallares , Malaria and Rome: A History of Malaria in Ancient Italy (2002). D. Soren , ‘Can Archaeologists Excavate Evidence of Malaria?’, World Archaeology 35/2 (2003),...

malaria

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A Dictionary of Nursing (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
173 words

...in anaemia. When the next batch of parasites is released symptoms reappear. The interval between fever attacks varies in different types of malaria. Preventive and curative treatment relies on such drugs as chloroquine and proguanil. benign m. malaria caused by P. vivax , P. malariae , or P. ovale , with intervals of 2–3 days between fever attacks. falciparum (or malignant ) m. the most severe form of malaria, in which the interval between fever attacks varies from a few hours to 2...

Malaria

Malaria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...a human victim. Symptoms of malaria include erratic fever, chills, and muscle pains as well as intestinal cramps and diarrhea. Jaundice and anemia may also develop. Plasmodium falciparum may cause kidney failure, coma, and death. A majority of the 300 million annual cases of malaria, including 90 percent of the disease’s million fatalities, occur in Africa. In 2003 , the World Bank estimated that malaria costs Africa more than $12 billion each year and reduces annual growth in African nations by 1.3 percent. Malaria has probably infected people since...

malaria

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
72 words

... Parasitic disease resulting from infection with one of four species of Plasmodium protozoa . Transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito, it is characterized by sudden fever and enlargement of the spleen. Attacks of fever, chills, and sweating recur as new generations of parasites develop in the blood. The original antimalarial drug, quinine , gave way to synthetics such as chloroquine. Malaria is one of the most widespread diseases, claiming two million lives a...

malaria

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The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... n. an intermittent and remittent fever caused by a protozoan parasite that invades the red blood cells. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes in many tropical and subtropical regions. malarial adj. mid 18th cent.: from Italian, from mal'aria , contracted form of mala aria ‘bad air.’ The term originally denoted the unwholesome atmosphere caused by the exhalations of marshes, to which the disease was formerly...

malaria

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A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
176 words

... a disease caused by species of protozoa belonging to the genus Plasmodium ( q.v. ) and transmitted by female mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles ( q.v. ). Malaria is the single most critical infectious disease of humankind. There are about 200,000,000 people infected by the parasite, and 2,000,000 die annually. Mortality rates are greatest in Africa, below the Sahara desert, where 90% of the deaths occur in children less than 5 years old. Malaria is the strongest known force in recent history for evolutionary selection within the human genome....

malaria

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Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
293 words

...red cells results in anaemia. When the next batch of parasites is released symptoms reappear. The interval between fever attacks varies in different types of malaria: in quartan malaria (or fever ), caused by P. malariae , it is three days; in tertian malaria ( P. ovale or P. vivax ) it is two days (these two types are known as benign malarias ). In malignant (or falciparum ) malaria (caused by P. falciparum ) – the most severe kind – the interval between attacks varies from a few hours to two days ( see also blackwater fever ). Preventive...

Malaria

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,676 words
Illustration(s):
1

...once again a global campaign against malaria. They were also emboldened by the wartime discovery that DDT was a highly effective insecticide. Eradication and Control. In 1955 the World Health Organization launched an ambitious program for the global eradication of malaria. After years of antimalarial Malaria Control. Spraying DDT to kill mosquitos, 1958. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work across much of the globe—with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa, which had never been targeted for malaria eradication—in 1978 the global campaign...

Malaria

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Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,563 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Escalante, A. A. , A. A. Lal , and F. J. Ayala . “ Genetic Polymorphism and Natural Selection in the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ” Genetics 149 (1998): 189–202. Garnham, P. C. C. Malaria Parasites and Other Haemosporidia . Oxford, 1966. Huff, C. G. “ Studies on the Evolution of Some Disease-producing Organisms. ” Quarterly Review of Biology 13 (1938): 196–206. Maxwell, R. “ Some Evolutionary Possibilities in the History of the Malaria Parasites. ” Indian Journal of Malariology 9 (1955): 247–253. Margulis, L. , H. McKhann , and L....

malaria

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...malaria A severe mosquito-borne protozoan infection of the blood and blood-forming organs causing recurrent bouts of high fever due to the destruction of red blood corpuscles by plasmodia , malaria parasites. It is one of the world's greatest public health problems, affecting more than 200 million people and killing about 2 million every year, including more than 1 million children. Its long-term effects include hemolytic anemia, and it has devastating effects on other organs and tissues. It is now mainly a tropical and subtropical disease, but historically...

Malaria

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James L. A. WEBB Jr.

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
999 words

...Evolutionary and historical aspects of the burden of malaria. Clinical Microbiology Reviews , 15 (4), 564–594. De Zulueta, J. (1987). Changes in the geographical distribution of malaria throughout history. Parassitologia , 29 , 193–205. Harrison, G. (1978). Mosquitoes, malaria, and man . New York: E. P. Dutton. Humphreys, M. (2001). Malaria: Poverty, race, and public health in the United States . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Litsios, S. (1996). The tomorrow of malaria . Wellington, New Zealand: Pacific Press. Poser, C. M. ,...

malaria

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... ( marsh fever ) An infectious disease that is caused by a parasite ( Plasmodium ) transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Once common throughout Europe but eliminated by improved health care and destruction of the vector , it is now confined to the tropics. Symptoms include recurring chills, fever, and sweating, and it can be...

malaria terminology

malaria terminology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...malaria terminology The common types of malaria are named on the basis of their periodicity, severity, and the specific plasmodium parasite responsible. Thus, benign and malignant tertian, quartan, falciparum, and cerebral malaria are identified. The prevention and control of malaria have generated enough terms to fill a substantial glossary. For example, drug-resistant malaria is classified as RI, RII, or RIII in terms of the extent of parasitemia after specified time intervals from beginning treatment. Periodicity is classified as quartan if the fever...

malaria and war

malaria and war   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
1,354 words

...places of malaria-bearing mosquitoes. At the same time, malaria has often had a dramatic impact upon military campaigns and, in recent times, it has even been used as weapon of war. The most deadly form of malaria is that caused by the Plasmodium falciparum group of parasites, once thought to be a single species, but now known to be at least five subspecies. Probably originating in West Africa — where it is still the most common form of malaria — falciparum is now distributed widely throughout the tropical world. Another species of malaria parasite...

Roll Back Malaria

Roll Back Malaria   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Roll Back Malaria A WHO campaign to control, and where possible eliminate, malaria from endemic regions. It relies mainly on preventing access of mosquitoes to susceptible persons by the use of bed-nets, environmental control, and larvicides. See http://www.who.int/malaria/en/ . ...

malaria life cycle

malaria life cycle   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...malaria life cycle The protozoan parasites of the genus plasmodium that cause malaria in humans have a life cycle with a sexual phase in female anopheline mosquitoes and an asexual phase in human hosts. The sexual phase begins in the bloodstream of the human host with formation of microgametocytes and macrogametocytes, which develop into microgametes and macrogametes in the mosquito, where fertilization is followed by development of oocysts , from which sporozoites are released, enter the mosquito's salivary gland, and invade the bloodstream when the...

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