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Linguistics

The languages treated in this article include both those indigenous to the Mesoamerican culture areas and other languages within the same families but spoken outside that area. ...

linguistics

linguistics   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
28 words

... See the Introduction. Effectively of any investigation of language and languages if not clearly belonging to some other discipline, such as philosophy, the study of literature,...

forensic linguistics

forensic linguistics   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
15 words

...linguistics Any application of linguistics, phonetics included, in a criminal investigation or judicial...

Educational Linguistics

Educational Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,368 words

...learning, or to analyze language education policy in its fullest social and educational context. 2. Educational vs. applied linguistics The term educational linguistics was coined because of the ambiguity and the delusive implication of the term applied linguistics . Applied linguistics, with its echo of applied mathematics and applied science, suggests incorrectly that it is possible to take a new theoretical advance in linguistics and apply it directly to a practical field like language teaching. The most egregious example of misapplication was the...

Critical Linguistics

Critical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
901 words

...Linguistics . The term critical linguistics was first used by a group, mainly of linguists, at the University of East Anglia in the 1970s (Fowler et al. 1979 ). Their linguistics was “critical” in the sense that it set out to reveal hidden power relations and ideological processes which were at work in linguistic texts. Following the common practice, this article extends the term to other schools who share these objectives; however, some of them prefer to describe themselves as “discourse analysts,” “pragmaticists” (Mey 1985 ), or simply...

Applied Linguistics

Applied Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,896 words

...linguistics was held in Nancy, France, in 1964 . The participants were representative of most schools of thought in linguistics at the time. From it emerged the Association Internationale de Linguistiques Appliquée (AILA), an association of national AL associations, which publishes the International Review of Applied Linguistics . (For a review of the history of the American Association for Applied Linguistics and the British Association of Applied Linguistics, and of the journals Applied Linguistics and the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics , see...

historical linguistics

historical linguistics   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
48 words

...linguistics The study of change in individual languages and in language generally. Distinguished by most schools of structural linguistics as a branch of the subject concerned with diachronic relations among language systems, separate from and presupposing the findings of synchronic or descriptive linguistics...

applied linguistics

applied linguistics   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
37 words

...linguistics Strictly any application of linguistics. But often in practice of a discipline which applies the findings of linguistics, among others, in education: e.g. or especially to teaching English as a foreign or second language...

‘secular linguistics’

‘secular linguistics’   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
40 words

...linguistics’ An approach to linguistics touted as distinct from and superior to that practised by other linguists, in being based on ‘real data’, on ‘actual speech’ recorded in social settings, on corpora, on quantitative analysis, etc. Compare empirical linguistics...

Statistical Linguistics

Statistical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,447 words
Illustration(s):
1

...correct). In the early 1970s, H. S. Sichel introduced a novel probability law, the generalized inverse Gaussian-Poisson distribution, in connection with related issues. See also Corpus Processing ; Historical Linguistics , article on Relative Chronology ; Machine Translation ; Mathematical Linguistics ; Parsing ; and Computational Linguistics . Bibliography Apostel, Léo , Benoît Mandelbrot , and Albert Morf . 1957. Logique, language et theorie de l'information . (Études d'épistémologie génétique, 3.) Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Baayen,...

Areal Linguistics

Areal Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
6,173 words
Illustration(s):
3

...facts. Desnitskaja rejects the proposal of Èdel'man 1968 :3 to restrict the meaning of “areal linguistics” to the reconstruction of ancient areas, and to redefine “linguistic geography” as the study of contemporary distributions. It should be clear from the foregoing that “areal linguistics” is too widely used in a broader sense to be restrictable to the study of “linguistic areas” as Emeneau defined them. For that subfield, the term “contact linguistics” is sometimes used. However, that is not quite the same thing, since it takes as its focus the...

Anthropological Linguistics

Anthropological Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
6,940 words

...a historical formation called the ‘order of discourse’. In North America, the term “anthropological linguistics” denotes a tradition of the description of non-Western languages, especially those of the Americas. Among those who might be called anthropological linguists, many are not academics (especially those affiliated with missionary organizations such as the Summer Institute of Linguistics); however, this designation was especially appropriate when linguistics was housed mainly within language departments. Thus students of non-Western languages, especially...

Historical Linguistics

Historical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,403 words
Illustration(s):
9

...the development of historical linguistics as an academic field dates to the 19th century. Historical linguistics profited from theoretical innovations within linguistics as a whole in the 20th century. Major advances were made with the growth of American Structuralism, with increasingly sophisticated study of dialectology, and with the development of transformational-generative syntax. Historical linguistics has been increasingly informed, too, by advances in sociolinguistics, textual analysis, and computational linguistics. An important aim of...

Mathematical Linguistics

Mathematical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
12,904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...inherent mathematical value than for their applicability. Nevertheless, the internal organization of linguistics remains the best guide for understanding the internal subdivisions of mathematical linguistics, and we will survey the field following the traditional division of linguistics into phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics, looking at other branches of linguistics such as sociolinguistics or language acquisition only to the extent that these have developed their own mathematical methods. 1. Phonetics The key structures of both...

‘empirical linguistics’

‘empirical linguistics’   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
32 words

...linguistics’ A polemical term used at one time by linguists who claimed that their approach to language dealt with facts, or specific kinds of data, that others ignored. Compare secular linguistics...

Institutional Linguistics

Institutional Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
12,335 words

...Linguistics . This entry includes the following subentries: Overview of Institutional Discourse Analysis Law and Language Medicine and Language Psychotherapy and Language Language and Business Language and Media Classroom-Based Research in Second Language Acquisition Overview of Institutional Discourse Analysis Institutional linguistics is the area of linguistics that examines the language used by representatives of institutions (e.g. education, law, or medicine) as they carry out the work of those institutions (Coleman 1989 , Di Pietro 1982 ,...

Functional Linguistics

Functional Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
6,977 words

...of functional linguistics at this time were Susumu Kuno and John Haiman . Several works by the former suggested that certain syntactic rules have functional restrictions, related to cognitive constraints on language processing (see Kuno 1980 ). The importance of iconicity in grammar was discussed by Haiman 1983 , 1985 a,b. In addition to the typological focus of functional linguistics, three other prominent movements within Functional Linguistics emerged. One of these is what has come to be known as “cognitive linguistics.” Inspired by the work of...

Computational Linguistics

Computational Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,923 words
Illustration(s):
2

...practical way for NLP. See also Computational Morphology ; Parsing ; Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar ; Lexical-Functional Grammar ; Mathematical Linguistics ; Speech Recognition ; Statistical Linguistics ; Cognitive Science ; Computational Morphology ; Computational Phonology ; and Machine Translation . Bibliography ALPAC. 1966. Language and machines: Computers in translation and linguistics. A report by the Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee, Division of Biological Sciences, National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C. Alshawi,...

‘taxonomic linguistics’

‘taxonomic linguistics’   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
35 words

...linguistics’ Term of abuse used by Chomsky in the 1960s, to characterize schools of structural linguistics that, as he saw them, were interested only in procedures for the segmentation and classification of...

areal linguistics

areal linguistics   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
39 words

...linguistics Any branch of linguistics that studies the geographical distribution of variables. A term sometimes applied to dialect geography ; also to the study of linguistic areas , in which a set of languages forms a Sprachbund...

Integrational Linguistics

Integrational Linguistics   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
53 words

...Linguistics Roy Harris’s term for a theory of language grounded in the study of specific utterances in specific contexts in which they are uttered. ‘Integrational’, therefore, in that languages are not conceived as systems independent of their use in communication. Hence of work by Harris and his followers generally. Compare Cognitive Linguistics...

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