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line-haul costs

The costs of transporting goods over a route, but not loading or unloading. The selection of any shipment route depends on the total sum of its network access, line haul, interlining, ...

line-haul costs

line-haul costs   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

...-haul costs The costs of transporting goods over a route, but not loading or unloading. The selection of any shipment route depends on the total sum of its network access, line haul, interlining, terminal transfer, and network exit costs. Sinha and Thykandi (2019) MIT tell you, clearly, more than you might want to know. The 200-year-long collapse in transport time has now been replaced by a plateau in general line-haul speeds , but time/space continues to collapse locally, for example through new fixed links or high speed trains ( Knowles (2006) J....

line-haul costs

line-haul costs  

The costs of transporting goods over a route, but not loading or unloading. The selection of any shipment route depends on the total sum of its network access, line haul, interlining, terminal ...
Interstate Commerce Commission

Interstate Commerce Commission   Reference library

Ari Hoogenboom

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
748 words

...to preserve existing relationships and avoid destructive intermodal competition. The Court, however, forced the ICC to allow more competition even when rates failed to cover fully distributed costs but at least covered out‐of‐pocket costs. Subsequently, the Court protected a low‐cost mode of transportation by insisting that a rate be based on fully distributed costs. Having moved the ICC to foster intermodal competition as long as it was not predatory and having nudged it in the direction of a more rational rate system, the Supreme Court remained aloof in...

rail system

rail system   Reference library

J. A. Chartres

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,146 words

...was around 9,000. Remarkable traffic growth before 1914 was accompanied by rising costs and falling levels of profit. Freight rose from c. 38 million tons in 1850 , to 167 million in 1870 , and 513 million in 1912 , of which 60 per cent was coal and coke, and passenger journeys grew from 73 million in 1850 to 337 million in 1870 , and 1,580 million in 1912 ( c. 2,000 million including London). Competition in services and facilities, the rising ratio of running costs to gross receipts, and falling labour productivity characterized much of the period ...

Food Procurement Policy

Food Procurement Policy   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,981 words
Illustration(s):
1

...protection against distress sales during surplus situations and not a guarantee for fixed returns on the costs incurred. FCI’s costs of operation can be reduced by expanding decentralized procurement to the local market, carrying out storage operations at the state level, and by avoiding cross hauling of grain in the centralized system ( Jha and Srinivasan 2004 ). Decentralization would help ensure market efficiency and reduce the economic costs of running the PDS. Reforms to the GoI’s food procurement policy in these directions would help achieve its...

Horses

Horses   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,551 words

...was simpler and more easily repaired, and the bullocks could work hard on overnight grass feeding; but horses were stronger, faster, and superior on metal roads, especially with the improved wagons that came into use at the end of the century. Until World War II horse teams hauled most wheat and wool to the railheads. The expansion of the wheat industry depended on the sweat of the teams. Ploughing, reworking the fallow, sowing the crop, harvesting, and carting the wheat to the stacks at the sidings were all done with teams of six, eight, or ten horses;...

Walking

Walking   Reference library

Joseph Anthony Amato

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,820 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and costs and expenses made public transportation largely incomplete, inefficient, unaffordable, and inconvenient. Nevertheless, the nineteenth century put in place the conditions for the transformation of walking by creating a great revolution in riding and transporting. In the course of the nineteenth century, cities—despite growth in size, population, and crime—began to offer pedestrians clean, safe, and efficient environments and provided rules for traversing the city on foot. Cities began to pave, police, and light streets and to line them with...

Accounting

Accounting   Reference library

Doug CERF, Kate LANCASTER, and Arline SAVAGE

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
4,263 words

...much-quoted speech given in 1970 : “Over the long haul of life on this planet, it is the ecologists, and not the bookkeepers of business, who are the ultimate accountants.” Doug CERF , Kate LANCASTER , and Arline SAVAGE California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo See also Cap-and-Trade Legislation ; Climate Change Disclosure ; Ecosystem Services ; Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) ; Green GDP ; Performance Metrics ; Stakeholder Theory ; Transparency ; Triple Bottom Line ; True Cost Economics Further Reading Barth,...

Corporate Ethics

Corporate Ethics   Reference library

Anup Kumar Sinha

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...question is not merely a philosophical issue. It has enormous practical implications. There are innumerable cases all over the world where a business corporation’s decision has had widespread consequences in terms of incurring social costs. These costs could be borne by people who have nothing to do with the corporation. These costs could also be borne by customers, shareholders, or other stakeholders, such as suppliers and workers. The corporation can be penalized (if proven guilty of imposing the cost, such as adulterating a medicine) by imposing a monetary...

Railroads

Railroads   Reference library

William Huneke, Richard L. Hills, and H. Roger Grant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
13,672 words
Illustration(s):
6

...and end long- and short-haul discriminations. They pressed hard for the creation of state commissions with powers to protect their legislative accomplishments. Their victories were impressive. The most dramatic one came in Wisconsin with the Potter Act of 1874 . This controversial statute arranged freight and passenger traffic into classifications and established maximum rates for items within each category. Generally, it ended the common practice of carriers setting a greater rate per ton mile and per passenger mile for the shorter haul. The Potter measure...

automobile, the

automobile, the   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the first to mass-produce automobiles, but it took volume production to levels previously unimagined. Rigid standardization, interchangeable parts, and special-purpose machine tools complemented Ford's introduction of the assembly line in 1913 , resulting in vastly increased production volume and relentless cost reduction. Lower costs allowed dramatically lower prices and huge sales increases, and by the mid-1920s half of the cars on America's roads were Ford Model Ts. At this time the ratio of cars to people in the United States was about 1 to 5. The United...

Railways

Railways   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,785 words

...its first line, from Sydney to Parramatta, opened for regular service in 1855 . In the meantime, the Hobson's Bay Railway Company had established the first Australian railway between Melbourne and its port for ocean-going vessels at Sandridge (Port Melbourne) in September 1854 . Lines between cities and their ports, such as the similar line from Adelaide to Port Adelaide ( 1856 ), were highly profitable. Geoffrey Blainey argued in The Tyranny of Distance (1966) that they were perhaps the only services capable of returning the high costs of...

Ogallala Aquifer, Depletion and Restoration of The

Ogallala Aquifer, Depletion and Restoration of The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,171 words
Illustration(s):
1

...southern high plains was one of the last regions in the contiguous United States to be settled. The absence of appreciable surface water outweighed the benefits of the endlessly level land, with no timber to clear or rocks to haul. The region's eastern boundary is also aligned along the edge of the 550-millimeter (20-inch) isohyet (line of equal precipitation), long recognized as the margin of nonirrigated agriculture. Moreover, the climate of the high plains was and is highly variable, with a marked tendency to drought, interrupted by occasions of normal...

Railroads

Railroads   Reference library

H. Roger Grant, Ayodeji Olukoju, Peter N. Stearns, George M. Lauderbaugh, Elisabeth Köll, and John Hurd

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,645 words
Illustration(s):
2

...begun by the Germans before World War I. The French extended the line from Lomé to Atakpamé, to Blita in 1934 . Other lines ran from Lomé to Anécho (Aného) and Palimé (Kpalimé). The British built railroads in Nigeria, the Gold Coast (Ghana), and Sierra Leone. The western line from Lagos reached Kano in 1912 , while the eastern line from Port Harcourt to Jos was completed in 1926 . The Accra–Tarkwa–Obuasi line was completed in 1902 , and the Sekondi–Takoradi to Kumasi line was opened in 1903 . The Accra–Kumasi and the Accra–Sekondi lines were...

Airplanes and Air Transport.

Airplanes and Air Transport.   Reference library

William M. Leary and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,012 words

...same time, the industry's costs doubled. Between 1979 and 1983 , the domestic airline industry suffered a staggering net loss of $1.2 billion. The later 1980s witnessed a wave of mergers and bankruptcies as the air-transport industry struggled to adjust to the new deregulated era. Not until the mid-1990s did a measure of stability and profitability return to an industry once again dominated by a handful of giant carriers. In June 1995 , the industry carried its ten billionth passenger since the St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line began flying in 1914 . Over...

disposal of the dead

disposal of the dead   Reference library

Thomas Lynch

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,282 words

...There the dead were burned, their bones stored in stone bowls and jars in surrounding chambers. This singular enterprise required visionary leadership, personnel management, a division of labor. Hunters, gatherers, planters and harvesters, cooks and caretakers, boatsmen, haulers and high priests — all the makings of a civilization were engaged to build a kind of city of the dead. And 5000 years later, what is left are the stones. The white face of the mound can be seen for miles through the Irish mist, a monument to the makers' vision and muscular will....

Railroads

Railroads   Reference library

Colleen A. Dunlavy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
2,828 words

...construction that had sharp curves and steep grades, as well as comparatively high operating costs and low speeds. Although a wide diversity of construction styles marked U.S. railroad development, this American system of construction proved especially attractive when the terrain was rough, distances were long, or capital was scarce. The first locomotives were English imports, but a style more appropriate to the United States soon developed—powerful enough to haul heavy loads up steep grades and with swiveling front wheels to handle sharp curves. From the 1830s...

Railroads.

Railroads.   Reference library

Colleen A. Dunlavy

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,137 words

...of light construction with sharp curves and steep grades as well as comparatively high operating costs and low speeds. While a wide diversity of construction styles marked U.S. railroad development, this American system of construction proved especially attractive when the terrain was rough, distances long, or capital scarce. The first locomotives were English imports, but a style more appropriate to the United States soon developed—powerful enough to haul heavy loads up steep grades and with swiveling front wheels to handle sharp curves. From the 1830s,...

Regulation

Regulation   Reference library

Thomas S. Ulen, Thomas S. Ulen, Thomas S. Ulen, Thomas S. Ulen, and Thomas S. Ulen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
8,051 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as what the law has meant for eight centuries by “common carrier,” but there is a connection. A natural monopoly is a firm with declining average costs over the relevant range of demand. This situation frequently occurs because fixed costs loom large in the total costs of the firm, as is often the case with public utilities and other capital-intensive enterprises. Because of declining average costs, the total costs of production would, in theory, be lower if a single firm provided the good or service. However, a single firm, if unregulated, would restrict...

Shipping Companies

Shipping Companies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
12,481 words
Illustration(s):
1

...costs of the technological revolution. They extended further cooperation in services by the sharing of containers and of space on each other’s ships. For services between the United Kingdom and Australia the consortia Overseas Containers Ltd . ( OCL ) was formed with P&O, Blue Funnel, British and Commonwealth, Furnes Withy, Port Line, and Shaw Savill, as was Associated Container Transport ( ACT ), whose partners included the liner companies Cunard, Blue Star, Ben Line, and Ellerman. On the North Atlantic there was the Atlantic Container Line ( ACL...

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