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libraries

Subject: History

By the end of the 5th cent. bc, books were no rarity, even if some regarded them as a fad of intellectuals like Euripides; Athens had booksellers, and exports reached the Black (Euxine) ...

Libraries

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The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
130 words

...Libraries The first library collections in the Muslim world appeared in the Umayyad era ( 661–750 ) and belonged to mosque libraries and private libraries. Historically, mosques provided the majority of public library services. The major classical library was Bayt al-Hikmah of Baghdad, founded under Caliph al-Mansur in the eighth century, which served as a major translation center and central clearinghouse for the learning of the Islamic world. Other major classical libraries were the Fatimid Dar al-Ilm in Cairo and the great library of the Spanish Umayyads...

Libraries

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The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,440 words

... are collections of books, periodicals, manuscripts, and other sources of information. While new information technologies are changing forms of collection and access, Australian historians remain heavily dependent on the country's library system. That system consists principally of the national and state libraries, university libraries, local libraries, and a number of specialised collections. The first libraries in the Australian colonies were private collections, subscription libraries, and libraries maintained by the mechanics institutes and schools...

Libraries.

Libraries.   Reference library

Wayne A. Wiegand

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
863 words

...system for library collections, began editing a new periodical entitled Library Journal , and started a library supplies company. In 1887 , Dewey opened the world's first library school at New York's Columbia College (where, on the otherwise all-male campus, seventeen of the first twenty students were women). By 1900 , Dewey had cemented into library practice his own brand of library science, which emphasized efficient service and management and delegated to other professionals the authority to identify the “good books” libraries would collect. By...

libraries

libraries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
744 words

...these libraries fulfilled an important function. Within francophone Quebec, libraries became a source of great controversy, with the library of the secular Institut canadien de Montréal being in direct competition with the clerically based parish libraries. After the Guibord affair , the parish libraries won the day and dominated Quebec's local library scene until the 1970s. Following Confederation library development assumed new directions, which remained constant for many decades. Although the federal government spoke of creating a national library, and...

libraries

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
655 words

...Romans inherited some libraries direct ( Aemilius Paullus (2) brought home the Macedonian royal library, Sulla obtained Aristotle's books after the sack of Athens), together with the traditions of private collection and public endowment. Cicero accumulated several libraries (and visited those of Varro , Faustus Cornelius Sulla , and Marcus Licinius Lucullus , son of Lucius Licinius Lucullus  ); Persius left 700 rolls of Chrysippus . The private library became fashionable: Trimalchio boasted both Greek and Latin libraries; Seneca the Younger ...

libraries

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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
366 words

... The first considerable collection of books of which we are reliably informed is that of Aristotle, although the tyrant Polycrates of Samos was said to have collected books, and the Athenian tyrant Peisistratus is most improbably said to have founded a public library at Athens. Euripides is also credited with a collection of books. It was apparently the arrangement of Aristotle's library that provided a model for the Alexandrian Library, founded in the third century bc , and the Pinakes (‘Catalogues’) of Callimachus made the books accessible. The...

Libraries

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The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,001 words

... are an essential feature of intellectual life, always present in a civilization with a developed culture. In the Middle Ages , libraries were found primarily in religious institutions: the oldest surviving library in Italy is that of the cathedral chapter of Verona, the Biblioteca Capitolare, already in existence in the 9th c. It was above all in monastic libraries, on both sides of the Alps, that Italian humanists searched for the lost masterpieces of classical literature. Under the influence of humanism, new library patterns emerged in Italy in the...

Libraries

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Louise S. Robbins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...or mercantile libraries to educate themselves and to provide wholesome leisure pursuits. Self-education and constructive use of leisure continued to create an impetus for libraries and the move toward tax-supported, truly public ones. New York State allowed taxation for school libraries beginning in the 1830 s, but Boston Public Library became the first tax-supported public library in 1854 . Such libraries then grew up rapidly, numbering 257 when the U.S. Bureau of Education published its 1876 special report, Public Libraries in the United...

Libraries

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Wayne A. Wiegand

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...acceptable literary parameters library leaders defined to successfully attract large numbers of readers and tempt them with something “better”—accounted for two-thirds of circulation. Professionalization. To encourage uniform library practices, Melvil Dewey in 1876 helped organize the American Library Association, published his decimal classification for library collections, began editing a new periodical entitled Library Journal , and started a library supplies company. In 1887, Dewey opened the world's first library school at New York's Columbia College...

libraries

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The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
849 words

...and part-time children’s public libraries, 125 centres where books were available, 11 mobile libraries, 265 secondary school libraries, and 754 primary school libraries. This entire system had been built up since the Second World War. In recent years, however, funding cuts have left the future of library provision under threat in many countries. A lack of political will and a lack of political obligation (in the UK, for instance, there is still no statutory requirement for publicly funded schools to have a library at all) have meant that both local and...

libraries

libraries   Reference library

J. A. Cannon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
835 words

...libraries. A great many MS volumes and books were dispersed at the dissolution of the monasteries ( c. 1540 ) and, though Archbishop Parker , Sir Robert Cotton , and Sir Thomas Bodley recovered some, many perished. The Duke Humphrey library at Oxford was devoid of books and given over to other uses. But the number of scholarly libraries was increasing. Cambridge University library began in a modest fashion, the books kept in chests, but in the 1470s Archbishop Rotherham endowed a new library building in Old Schools. Edinburgh began collecting a library...

Libraries

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The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,552 words

...who subscribed to and cared for its periodicals. Later, black women's clubs established libraries in the segregated South, where library services for blacks were virtually nonexistent. Women donated libraries, too. In her research, McCauley discovered two women mill workers who had served as librarians in mill town libraries and left their life savings for the founding of public libraries. Women gained access to academic libraries more slowly than to public libraries. Early in the century, pioneer educators Emma Willard and Catharine Beecher , drawing on...

libraries

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
314 words

... . In the fourteenth century, libraries were small collections (numbered in hundreds rather than thousands) of manuscripts stored in monasteries, universities, and royal palaces. In the fifteenth century, humanist evocations of the libraries of antiquity (notably Alexandria) encouraged the amassing of classical texts by scholars and their patrons. Manuscripts of ancient Latin authors were discovered in the monasteries by scholars such as Poggio Bracciolini , Niccolò Niccoli (whose 800-volume library was opened to the public after his death in 1436 ),...

Libraries

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,432 words

...of organized, well-managed book collections—libraries. Early Libraries. The first library collections appeared in the Umayyad era. Few books from that time survive, but there are accounts of literary activity and book collecting. The Umayyad prince Khālid ibn Yazīd ( d. 704 ) was a man of letters and a noted book collector. The earliest collections belonged to mosque libraries and private libraries; later came caliphal, academic, and public libraries. Mosques were often the chief suppliers of public library services. The second ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Manṣūr (...

libraries

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The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,022 words

...VI but the royal library never became the depository of the nation as in England. Yet within the British Isles Scotland could boast the earliest post‐Reformation libraries under municipal control. In addition to Little's Edinburgh library endowed in 1580 , St Mary's Church Library in Dundee, latterly the town library, was endowed in 1599 and in 1585 the ‘Common Library of New Aberdeen’ was founded by burgesses, lawyers, and ministers and housed in St Nicholas church. It passed in 1632 to the newly established Marischal College Library. The creation of...

Libraries

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The Oxford Companion to German Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
299 words

... . In the Middle Ages the monasteries possessed in their collections of MSS. the only real libraries. Those of Fulda, Reichenau, and St Gall were especially notable. Princely and royal libraries were instituted from the 16th c. on, partly by the secularization of monasteries. Among these new libraries were the Hofbibliothek in Vienna, founded in 1526 , and the electoral collections in Dresden ( 1556 ) and Munich ( 1558 ), all of which have within the last century become national or state libraries. The Bibliotheca Palatina, founded in Heidelberg in ...

Libraries

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,273 words
Illustration(s):
1

...libraries. This was the case of the library of the kings of France . Certain towns also formed libraries at the end of the Middle Ages. Libraries of individuals . These might be princes or lords, churchmen ( Bishops archbishops cardinals , etc.), scholars (professors, Jurists , doctors, Humanists , men of letters, etc.) and finally families, noble and middle-class. The history of these collections shows that it is hard to establish clear and definite lines of separation between them. Personal libraries often formed the core of institutional libraries....

Libraries

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Thomas Augst

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...constantly complained “about the relative lack of libraries, publications, learned associations, and leisure.” Before 1786 , some 230 libraries (not including private libraries) were founded in the American colonies and the states they became, but only eighty-eight of these survived for more than ten years. Before the founding of the Library Company of Philadelphia in 1731 , most libraries were attached to churches, and consisted of small collections religious in matter. The only substantial libraries in the colonies aside from a few private ones were...

libraries

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P. J. Parsons

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,228 words
Illustration(s):
1

...counts 28 libraries; in the 2nd cent. ad at least a procurator bibliothecarum had overseen the whole system ( see procurator ). The new capital Constantinople was provided at short order with a library, which eventually reached 120,000 books. Origen’s library at Caesarea provided the Christian exemplar. Hellenistic libraries apparently consisted of simple storage-rooms attached to a stoa (colonnade) or the like; such is the only ancient library to survive in situ , that of the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum . The great Roman libraries provided...

libraries

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P. J. Parsons

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,171 words

...of Rome counts 28 libraries; in the 2nd cent. ad at least a procurator bibliothecarum had overseen the whole system. The new capital Constantinople was provided at short order with a library, which eventually reached 120,000 books. Origen's (1) library at Caesarea (2) provided the Christian exemplar. Hellenistic libraries apparently consisted of simple storage-rooms attached to a stoa or the like; such is the only ancient library to survive in situ , that of the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum . The great Roman libraries provided...

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