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liberty fries

American name coined for French fries (chips) in 2003.

liberty fries

liberty fries   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... fries American name coined for French fries ( chips ) in 2003...

liberty fries

liberty fries  

Reference type:
Overview Page
American name coined for French fries (chips) in 2003.
German Family Names

German Family Names   Reference library

Edda Gentry

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
6,303 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ending in ‑in (which is the stress-bearing syllable of the name) like ballin , Leppin (both near Neubrandenburg), and Ramien (near Potsdam and Stettin, respectively). Among habitational names are those denoting inhabitants of regions, such as schwab , bayer , sachs , fries ( e ), hess ( e ), frank(e) , and preus(s) —denoting people originally from Schwaben (Swabia), Bayern (Bavaria), Sachsen (Saxony), Friesland (Frisia), Hessen (Hesse), Franken (Franconia), and Preussen (Prussia). Some of these are also ethnic names. Much more...

liberty cabbage

liberty cabbage   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... cabbage During the First World War any reference in the US to things German was deemed unpatriotic, and this included foodstuffs. An alternative name had therefore to be found for sauerkraut , and the choice fell on liberty cabbage . The image appealed to was presumably of America as the land of the free, defending the liberty of the world against German tyranny. Similar inspirations were liberty sandwich for ‘hamburger sandwich’ ( compare salisbury steak ) and, beyond the gastronomic sphere, liberty measles for ‘German measles’. See also ...

freedom fries

freedom fries   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...fries A polemical but short-lived alternative name proposed in the US for French fries (i.e., chips) as a sign of America’s grave displeasure with France for declining to support its invasion of Iraq in 2003 (the French themselves were widely characterized at the time as ‘cheese-eating surrender-monkeys’). It was coined by Republican Congressman Bob Ney (and soon followed by freedom toast for French toast ). See also liberty cabbage...

Indo-Caribbean

Indo-Caribbean   Reference library

Ramin Ganeshram

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...cuisine includes dishes such as fried rice, chow mein, and pow , a derivative of bao or Chinese steamed buns. Stewed meats that are first browned in sugar and then served with rice dishes speak to the mix of West African and East Indian tradition. Snack foods that are normally served as street foods in Guyana and Trinidad are particularly popular. Most beloved is Doubles, a hand-held breakfast treat that is eaten all day long among New York Indo-Caribbeans and comprises curried chickpeas sandwiched between ovals of fried yeast-based flatbread. Baked goods...

Thomas, Isaiah

Thomas, Isaiah (19 Jan 1749)   Reference library

Richard Crawford and Kate Van Winkle Keller

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
795 words

...and his press, he moved to Charlestown and then to Worcester, a large, prosperous, and politically minded town capable of supporting the Spy . Remaining in Worcester after peace was established, in 1784 Thomas invested in a font of music type from the London foundry of Joseph Fry & Son, responding to the burgeoning singing-school movement. Within a year he published the two-volume Worcester Collection of Sacred Harmony , a 200-page collection of hymn tunes and anthems for music societies, church choirs, and congregations as well as singing-schools. An...

Irreversible Binomials

Irreversible Binomials   Reference library

Garner's Modern English Usage (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
1,384 words

...good, the bad, and the ugly here, there, and everywhere hither, thither, and yon hook, line, and sinker hop, skip, and jump ifs, ands, or buts judge, jury, and executioner land, sea, and air lather, rinse, and repeat left, right, and center liberty, equality, fraternity life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness lights, camera, action live, laugh, love lock, stock, and barrel me, myself, and I mind, body, and soul morning, noon, and night past, present, and future person, place, or thing punt, pass, and kick reading, writing...

Ethics, Morality, and Law

Ethics, Morality, and Law   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,124 words

...one conception of morality on those with a different but reasonable conception. According to the political theory of liberalism, which seeks to promote as much individual liberty as is compatible with everyone else having the same liberty, the state should not use the criminal law to prevent immoral conduct that does not cause harm or offense to others. (See John Stuart Mill , On Liberty (1859) and Joel Feinberg , The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law (4 vols. 1984–88) ). The theory of legal moralism, in contrast, holds that the law reflects society’s...

Philately, musical

Philately, musical   Reference library

Stephen M. Fry

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,653 words

...caster, silversmith], Liberty Issue, 25¢ (18 April 1958) (coil issued 25 Feb 1965) “The American Woman” [violin in inset], 4¢ (2 June 1960) “And This Be Our Motto, In God Is Our Trust” [quotation from 4th verse of Francis Scott Key's “Star Spangled Banner”], American Credo Issue, 4¢ (14 Sept 1960) “Mexican Independence: 1810–1960” [bell], 4¢ (16 Sept 1960) [issued with an identical Mexican stamp with Spanish text] “Champion of Liberty: Ignacy Jan Paderewski,” Champion of Liberty Issue, 4¢, 8¢ (8 Oct 1960) “Let Freedom Ring,” [Liberty Bell], airmail, 10¢ (10...

Privacy

Privacy   Reference library

Sanford Levinson

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
7,110 words

...future. Information Control. In a highly influential 1968 article, Harvard professor (and later solicitor general) Charles Fried offered the definition of privacy as “the control we have over information about ourselves.” Fried related such control to central aspects of our lives as flourishing human beings, including “love and friendship.” Although a rich philosophical literature on privacy exists and not everyone accepts Fried's specific views, there is certainly general agreement—and not only among philosophers—that a central component of privacy is...

Menus

Menus   Reference library

Paul Freedman

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,312 words
Illustration(s):
1

...at the same hotel, in the collection of Henry Voigt, shows that as yet no distinction was made between male and female tastes. The gentlemen were offered seventeen entrées, all rendered in French, including mutton cutlets, duck with olives, macaroni “à l’Italienne,” and fried marinated calf’s head. The women were presented with twelve “side dishes” (the same thing as entrées) listed in English, among them mutton cutlets, duck with olives, macaroni, and calf’s head (here served with brain sauce). The rest of the ladies’ menu is similarly hearty: sautéed...

Kansas City

Kansas City   Reference library

Jack L. Ralston, Scott Cantrell, J. Bradford Robinson, William Everett, Chuck Haddix, and Rick Hellman

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,500 words

...concerts in Kansas City. In fall 1927 Busch joined the faculty at the Horner Institute–Kansas City Conservatory, and in fall 1933 , became the orchestra conductor at the newly established University of Kansas City. Also a composer, Busch wrote his Liberty Memorial Ode for the dedication of the Liberty Memorial, now home to the National World War I Museum, in 1921 . Busch received knighthoods from the kings of both Denmark and Norway for his contributions to music. In 1897 W.H. Leib organized the Oratorio Society, which continued until 1917 under...

American–Australian relations

American–Australian relations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,571 words

...grew from approximately $A50 million in 1950 to $A500 million in 1970 . American popular culture spread through the land. In the suburbs, Australians overwhelmingly took to American-style household conveniences and gadgetry. American cheap fast-food chains, such as Kentucky Fried Chicken and McDonald's , both responded to and altered family eating habits. From the 1920s, Hollywood films had great influence; in the television era, American movies and music came to dominate mass entertainment, and pop and rock stars gained cult followings. However it must...

Stiles, Ezra

Stiles, Ezra (1727–95)   Reference library

Robert E. Brown

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... (New Haven, CT, 1795). Dexter, Franklin B. , ed. The Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles , 3 vols (New York, 1901). Dexter, Franklin B. Extracts from the Itineraries and Other Miscellanies of Ezra Stiles … with a Selection from His Correspondence (New Haven, CT, 1916). Fry, Paul H. “Ezra Stiles’ Idea of a University,” Journal of Aesthetic Education 36, no. 3 (2002): 4–8. Hayes, Kevin J. “Portraits of the Mind: Ebenezer Devotion and Ezra Stiles,” New England Quarterly 70, no. 4 (1997): 616–30. Holmes, Abiel . The Life of Ezra Stiles a Fellow...

English art

English art   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,658 words

...art lay in its very diversity. This paradoxical theory, which extolled the ‘freedom’ of the English artist, typified by Hogarth , was current until the early years of the 20th century when English painters were still seen as champions of the liberty of modern art, an idea crushed by Clive Bell and Roger Fry who successfully marginalized the later followers of the Pre-Raphaelite tradition. In the mid-1860s a move towards classical subjects, combining archaeological exactitude with legitimized nudity, emerged in the works of Leighton , Alma-Tadema ,...

Aestheticism

Aestheticism   Reference library

Linda Dowling and Michalle Gal

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,688 words

...“art for art’s sake first of all, and afterwards we may suppose all the rest shall be added to her” ( 1868 , William Blake , p. 91). Aestheticism was further developed by formalists such as Clive Bell, Roger Fry, E. M. Forster, A. C. Bradley, and, even later, in the second half of the twentieth century, by Susanne Langer, Clement Greenberg, Michael Fried, and Monroe C. Beardsley, among others. Aestheticism is not only a philosophy of art, but it is also characterized by an active interaction with the contemporary art world, first with aestheticist art and...

Containers

Containers   Reference library

Peter Ross, Linda Campbell Franklin, and Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...breaking), and abundance. It also has the highest melting point of the common metals. Unfortunately, it is only a moderate heat conductor, will not heat evenly enough for dry cooking or sauces, and runs the risk of scorching. Thin pans can heat very quickly and are good for frying or warming liquids. Iron is excellent for andirons, fire tongs, trivets, grills, forks, and spoons. It is worked by forging at the anvil in a typical blacksmith's workshop. Eighteenth-century workmanship ranged from simple and crude to very sophisticated and elegant. Simpler...

Contract for Delivery with Prepayment (Salam) in Islamic Law

Contract for Delivery with Prepayment (Salam) in Islamic Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
7,137 words
Illustration(s):
1

...More recently, scholars have challenged the social basis of contract obligations. In his 1981 synthesis of contract law, Contract as Promise: A Theory of Contractual Obligation , Charles Fried argues that contract law should enforce what the parties promised rather than be so contingent upon the social and economic considerations of judges and legislators. Fried, like many others, sees the obligation of contract as rooted in what the parties have promised. [ See also Commercial Law, subentry on United States ; and Contracts Clause .] Bibliography...

Ethnic Foods

Ethnic Foods   Reference library

Mark H. Zanger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...that has become a symbol is Native American fry bread, which is made entirely of nonnative ingredients and is cooked in a postcontact iron pan. Fry bread may have its origins in the trade goods of French mountain men, in the sopaipillas of Spanish colonists in New Mexico, or in the preparation made by confined Navajos and Sioux in the nineteenth century from the subsistence allotments of low-protein flour and lard distributed by the U.S. government. Despite this possible history as the bread of affliction, fry bread spread to every native tribe through the...

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