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letters

Subject: Literature

Every period of the Middle Ages practised the epistolary genre on a large scale, its popularity being explained by the flexibility of its forms and the fluidity of the genre. ...

letters

letters   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
131 words

...letters Written communications sent to news organizations, editors, or specific journalists, by members of the audience . Before the emergence of email , text messages , and Twitter , the posting or hand delivery of a letter was one of the few forms of audience feedback that journalists would receive. Some letters would be from those dismissed by journalists as the ‘ green ink brigade’ of obsessives and cranks, some would contain a tip or a statement that might result in a story, and some would be selected and edited for publication on the letters’ page....

Letters

Letters   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
800 words

... . Women's letters have provided biographers and historians with a treasure trove of information about how women of the past lived, thought, and felt. In addition, letters are often, in themselves, a form of literature, frequently beautiful, humorous, poignant, or tragic. However, the letter as history and the letter as literature are sometimes at odds with one another. As recent epistolary theorists have emphasized, a letter is its own literary form, with its own time-bound conventions. Thus, to read the letters of another era may provide some historical...

Letters

Letters   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,286 words

...of parental letters; conversely, many parents advised more freely because there were advice books in the form of letters. Many women facing the perils of childbirth composed letters of advice for their children, commending them to God and offering general precepts of behavior, sometimes copied from printed sources. The relationship between manuscript and printed letters was a complex two-way traffic, with print influencing practice, and vice versa. Letters that had a wide readership did not necessarily become models for imitation; thus, the letters of Lord...

letters

letters   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,522 words

... . Trollope 's letters were first published in a selected edition by Bradford Booth in 1951 , following their use by Michael Sadleir for his authorized biography. Booth repro duced many only as summarized by Sadleir , considering that they did not rate a full edition like Gordon Ray's four-volume edition of Thackeray's letters: ‘The fame of Thackeray justifies an all-embracing inclusiveness. But with Anthony Trollope the case is altered’ ( Letters , ed. Booth, p. xxiv). The case was altered again by 1983 , when Trollope 's burgeoning critical...

letters

letters   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and collections of model letters, testifying to a concern for an elegant style, suited to its recipient (including, if necessary, the ‘heigh style, as whan men to kynges write’, IV.18). In the later Middle Ages the structural pattern was adapted for letters in the vernacular. MSS written in England in the 14th and 15th c. contain guides to the writing of letters in French. Letters in English survive in considerable numbers from the 15th c., and contain recognizable formulaic patterns very similar to those in French. Respectful letters open with a salutation,...

Letters

Letters   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...…” can be made out. There are additional small fragments of letters from Masada. Wadi Murabba῾at and Naḥal Ḥever have yielded a significant collection of letters from the time of the Bar Kokhba Revolt against Rome ( 132–135 ce ). These have become known as the Bar Kokhba letters (Aramaic “Son of the Star,” an allusion to Nm. 24.17 ). As is now known from the letters, most of which were written or dictated by him, his name was Shim῾on ben Kosiba (S. bar Kosiba in Aramaic). The Murabba῾at letters are all in Hebrew to subordinates in the vicinity,...

letters

letters   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,249 words

... , for Hardy, were a veritable ‘gale of correspondence’, as he called it. He was a constant correspondent: his personal letters in the seven volumes of the Purdy–Millgate edition, which excludes letters written for publication, cover 65 years, from August 1862 to December 1927 . Hardy's letters were handwritten until, after his second marriage in 1914 , his wife Florence typed many of them, assisted in the last few years of Hardy's life by the part-time secretary May O'Rourke . Many of the letters are addressed to the firm of Macmillan , his principal...

Letters

Letters   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
346 words

... Letters You bid me burn your letters. But I must forget you first. John Adams 1735 – 1826 American Federalist statesman , 2nd President 1797–1801 letter to Abigail Adams, 28 April 1776 Letters of thanks, letters from banks, Letters of joy from girl and boy, Receipted bills and invitations To inspect new stock or to visit relations, And applications for situations, And timid lovers' declarations, And gossip, gossip from all the nations. W. H. Auden 1907 – 73 English poet ‘Night Mail’ (1936) She'll vish there wos more, and that's the great art...

Letters

Letters   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Humorous Quotations (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
679 words

... Letters Letters I would have answered your letter sooner, but you didn’t send one. Goodman Ace 1899 – 1982 American humorist : letter to Groucho Marx, 1950 answered your letter sooner answered your letter sooner formula with which to return unsolicited manuscripts: Mr James Agate regrets that he has no time to bother about the enclosed in which he has been greatly interested. James Agate 1877 – 1947 British drama critic and novelist : diary, 3 January 1936 no time to bother in which he has been greatly interested One of the pleasures...

Letters

Letters   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
998 words

...Australian scholars and readers alike have demonstrated a strong interest in letters as research material and for their sheer readability. Numerous collections of letters have been published, though editorial standards and practice vary considerably. Of special interest is Letters from Victorian Pioneers , edited by T. F. Bride (1898), and the later edition by C. E. Sayers (1969) . Written by key figures in the early settlement of Victoria, the original letters are held in the State Library of Victoria and provide an unparalleled record in...

letters

letters   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
778 words

...details of legal and *administrative practices, and cultural ideals. Surviving letters were typically written as public pieces, being read aloud in the company of others. Individual letters would also circulate among a restricted audience of close associates. Before inclusion within a published letter-collection, individual letters were often subjected to a process of selection, revision, and arrangement in preparation for a broader public audience. The types of letters vary as widely as the occasion for correspondence. The most celebrated collections...

Letters

Letters   Reference library

James M. Lindenberger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,837 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of letters varies immensely, but typically letters contain greetings, information, requests, and instructions. This article focuses primarily on the letters (including references to letters) in the Hebrew Bible, along with the epigraphic letters from the biblical period which have been found at archaeological sites. Briefer notice is given to the New Testament letters, for which the reader may consult the entries on the individual books, and to letters in the Apocrypha. Epigraphic Letters. For an understanding of the biblical letters, it is important to read...

letters

letters   Reference library

Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,786 words

... . The most important scholarly event in Conrad studies during recent years has been the continuing publication of The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad , edited by Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies , and published by Cambridge University Press, When complete, the edition will probably yield nine volumes and include some 5,000 extant letters, over a third of them previously unpublished. The edition is also an achievement in recovery work of another kind, since it restores to their original forms many letters that were tactfully censored,...

letters

letters   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
575 words

...) to deliver and collect letters, who might cover 50 Roman miles (almost 80km) a day. Cicero's voluminous correspondence seems to have been preserved in various ways. Atticus , Cicero's most intimate friend, to whom he wrote in his own hand, kept the letters he received, as did Cicero's brother Quintus. His secretary Tiro appears to have kept copies of the letters Cicero sent to his various other friends, and these copies were collected and published, perhaps after Cicero's death ( see Cicero (1) 7 ). Nearly 100 letters received by Cicero have also...

pastoral letters

pastoral letters   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
27 words

...letters . Official letters of a bishop to all members of his diocese. They are distinguished from ‘encyclical letters’ addressed by the bishop only to his...

pastoral letters

pastoral letters   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
63 words

...pastoral letters (Lat. litterae pastorales ) . Official letters addressed by a bishop to all members of his diocese. Many RC bishops make a practice of publishing such letters to be read from the pulpit, e.g. at the beginning of Lent and Advent . They are commonly distinguished from ‘encyclical letters’ ( litterae encyclicae ) from a bishop, addressed only to his...

swash letters

swash letters   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
44 words

...letters From the 16 th century, certain *italic capitals (and later, occasionally some lower-case letters) were provided with a *calligraphic flourish, a style developed by *Granjon to take up space between adjacent letters, or at the end of a line. Margaret M....

Intimate Letters

Intimate Letters   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
57 words

...Letters ( Listy důvěrné [ Cz ] ) Sub‐title of Janáček's String Quartet No.2, comp. in 22 days 1928 ; so called because it is autobiographical in content, the letters concerned being those he wrote to Kamila Stoesslová between 1917 and 1928 (he wanted to call it ‘Love Letters’). F.p. Brno 1928 ; f.p. in England 1936 ...

Beaufort letters

Beaufort letters   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...letters A standardized system of code letters for the logging and reporting of past and current weather, as well as significant atmospheric phenomena. Introduced by Admiral Beaufort , but subsequently greatly altered and extended in...

Intimate Letters

Intimate Letters   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
36 words

...Intimate Letters ( Listy důvěrné ) . Subtitle of Janáček's String Quartet no. 2, composed in 28 days in 1928 ; it is autobiographical, the letters concerned being those he wrote to Kamila Stösslová between 1917 and 1928...

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