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legal script

A form of handwriting developed by writers of legal and other administrative documents. Its principal characteristics derive from the need to produce documents quickly, accurately, and ...

legal script

legal script   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
302 words

... emerged (the two-compartment ‘a’ and the ‘d’ with a looped *ascender , for example). Like some contemporary book hands, legal script s could be minute in size and use frequent *abbreviations . Although essentially a utilitarian technique, legal script occasionally incorporated decorative features such as *calligraphic initial letters or elaborate ascenders to upper lines. In Europe, the development of legal script s mirrored the emergence of medieval ecclesiastical, royal, and urban administrations, and illustrates the shift from memory to...

legal script

legal script  

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Overview Page
A form of handwriting developed by writers of legal and other administrative documents. Its principal characteristics derive from the need to produce documents quickly, accurately, and economically. ...
43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,488 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...led to the creation of writing systems based on Indic *scripts belonging to the Brahmi family ( see 39 ). Khmer script is known to date back to the 6 th century. Among the several styles of Khmer script are ’aksar chriěng (slanted script), ’aksar chhōr (upright script), ’aksar mūl (round script), and ’aksar khō̧’m (a variation of round script). Khmer script was also used at the Thai royal court until the late 19 th century. Burmese script, as a descendant of the extinct Mon script, has been attested as early as the 12 th century. It is used...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...empire; now in Bulgaria). Whereas Ohrid cultivated Glagolitic, Cyrillic became the official *script of Bulgaria. Old Church Slavonic gradually assumed vernacular features, laying the basis for the development of other literary Slavonic languages. Glagolitic script was used in the south Slavonic countries and in Moravia until the 12 th century, but then was generally replaced by Cyrillic or Latin, and localized mainly in Croatia. Early examples of Glagolitic script are rare. The first surviving MSS are of the 10 th –11 th centuries: the Kiev Folia, the...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...script, which was adapted to write a variety of languages, most of which are intrinsically unrelated to Arabic. In most of these areas, however, much religious and legal literature was also written in Arabic, and many copies of the Qur’ān were made, always in the original. Iran had a proud ancient literary tradition and, from the 10 th century onwards, in addition to producing magnificent Qur’āns, created a flourishing Persian MS culture. Poetic books were especially noteworthy, and a characteristic oblique and highly artistic form of the Arabic script was...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...workshop. 4 Script and decoration The style of medieval script and book illumination varied immensely throughout the 1,500 years or so of the Middle Ages. The graceful and spacious Carolingian minuscule, first adopted around 800 , gradually became heavier with the passage of time, losing its roundness (except in Italy) and fusing laterally about the 1180s into what is usually called ‘Gothic’ script, or ‘ *textura ’. This, in turn, split off into formal display hands, beautiful to look at but slow to write, and the quick *cursive scripts of many less...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Mayan script remained tied to the society in which it was created and closed to external influences, ultimately dying with the Spanish conquest. Beginning about ad 350–450 , however, the civilization around Teotihuacan began to exert its influence, using an open script that was easily adaptable to the languages and cultures with which it came in contact. The more open writing systems continued among the indigenous peoples of Mexico even after the conquest, appearing in court documents alongside Spanish, then eventually giving way to the Roman script of the...

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,050 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Church’s Latin rite. Liturgical texts in Old Church Slavonic were introduced and copied by the Byzantine mission of Sts Cyril and Methodius who were invited, in 863 , to replace the Latin rite with a language understood by the people. For this purpose, they invented *Glagolitic script , translating liturgical texts and the Bible into Old Church Slavonic. When Great Moravia collapsed in 906/8 the Czech centre of power grew in central Bohemia, while Slovakia was, until 1918 , under the rule of Hungary, whose religious, political, and cultural development it...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...10 th century, not long after the Magyar tribes had conquered and settled in the Carpathian Basin. Written records were primarily created in monasteries; however, legal and other official documents were produced by an ecclesiastical body (‘loca credibilia’) unique to Hungary. This legal institution continued to operate in convents and chapter houses, issuing certified records in *chancery script to laymen and the clergy until 1874 . The earliest ecclesiastical library, founded in 996 , was that of the Benedictine monastery of Pannonhalma. Its MS holdings...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,019 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...place or ‘target’ by clicking on text or image (hypertext and hypermedia respectively). Most of the navigation features of e-books are the result of hyperlinking, whether the table of contents, annotations, cross references, or bookmarks. A related capability is scripting: like hyperlinking, scripting initiates an action, but rather than simply bringing the reader to another place, it can trigger complex automated actions simultaneously, like opening additional windows, playing music or video, or enlarging images. Searchability is another key feature of the...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...for the printed book’s physical appearance, as reflected in choice of type, *format , *layout , *initials , and *rubrication . Types reproduced the *scripts most widely used at the time. Gothic *textura type had special variants according to different locations (more square in northern Germany and The Netherlands, rounder in southern Germany and Italy) and different uses (for liturgical works, legal and school texts, etc.). *Roman , like *italic (from 1501 ), was developed for classical texts, *bastarda and *Schwabacher founts were cut for...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...MSS There is no direct evidence of written documents from East Slavonic lands before the acceptance of Christianity by Prince Vladimir of Kiev c .988 . From the 11 th century, there are twelve extant MSS (seven of them dated) written in Old Church Slavonic in Cyrillic script. The first MSS are the Novgorod Codex (beginning of 11 th century), discovered in 2000 ; the *Ostromir Gospels ( 1056–7 ); and Sviatoslav’s Miscellanies ( Izborniki Sviatoslava ) ( 1073 , 1076 ). These compendia of works by the Church Fathers, parables, riddles, moral...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,978 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...which preceded the Jewish scriptures assumed the form of the *scroll (Isa. 34:4) or a roll made of *papyrus , *leather , or parchment (Jer. 36:14; Ezek. 2:9). Hebrew writing used Canaanite characters, which were eventually replaced with an Aramaic form of script known as the ‘square script’. The process of writing was accomplished by using metal implements for the hard surfaces of stone and metal. A stylus was used for writing on clay or wax, a brush for various materials with paint or ink, and a reed pen with ink. The prophetic literature is divided...

13 The Manuscript after the Coming of Print

13 The Manuscript after the Coming of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...There is something remote and impersonal about a well-constructed typographic page that is the price it exacts for permitting us to read it at high speed. Few reading experiences can, on the other hand, be more intense than that of a great poem or musical work written out in the script of its creator. The late Patrick O’Brian’s last, uncompleted novel was brought out in an edition with a reproduction of the MS and a type transcript on facing pages. The MS is a corrected working draft, not a fair *copy , but instinct with the human face of authorship. The...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...After the Xi Xia state was established, it quickly created a complex system of script and, for political as well as practical reasons, published a majority of books in its own language. The style of printing of Chinese script in the border regions depended upon whether the block-cutter was a non-Chinese native or an ethnic Chinese. In the absence of contemporary models to copy, older styles from the Tang appear in books. In addition to the use of non-Chinese languages and scripts in some of the books produced by these border-state peoples, exotic book forms...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...countries issued so-called ‘Book Laws’ from the 1970s to the 1990s , which (taking as a model the Spanish book law of 1967 ) attempt to create legal and fiscal frameworks favourable for the production and circulation of books, as well as for the protection of authors’ rights. Yet these laws, while tending to privilege author’s and publishers’ rights, have done little to help booksellers. Despite such legal measures, in the second half of the 20 th century the Latin American publishing industry developed unevenly and suffered important setbacks....

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Goa in 1552 , had established an extensive network of Jesuit missions along the Coromandel coast and had baptized more than 10,000 Tamil-speaking Parava fisher-people. A key figure in the new technology was Henrique Henriques, a Portuguese Jew, who produced five books in Tamil script and language, as well as a Tamil *grammar and *Dictionary . In 1577 Henriques’s first book was printed at Goa: Doctrina Christam, Tampiran Vanakkam , a translation of a Portuguese *catechism of 1539 . This book was not only the first to be printed with Indian type, but...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

... Oxford University Press For bigger types, matrices were sometimes struck in lead from punches cut in brass, or were made in brass by casting replicas from big steel punches. The choice of the style of types was governed by the same conventions as styles of writing. Gothic *scripts were used for the vernaculars of the northern languages; gradually, however, the use of the new humanistic upright and cursive forms (roman and italic) spread from Italy and tended to displace the gothic forms, except in Germany. New fashions in *typography were influenced by...

Possessives

Possessives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...famous heroes [read Molière's and Coward's famous heroes ].” Ibid. at 169 (Molière and Noel Coward never cowrote anything!). Again: “At times Mr. Levinson's and Mr. Link's script [read Mr. Levinson and Mr. Link's script ] threatens to rekindle durable narrative devices from Damn Yankees and Camelot .” Frank Rich , Hot Seat 207 ( 1998 ) (they coauthored the script). And again: “Ms. Howe takes a specific character's concern—the battle-scarred Ariel's hatred of men, Faith's ecstatic anticipation of motherhood, Holly's and Leo's [read Holly and...

National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina

National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Established in Sarajevo in 1945, the library was, until 1992, one of eight legal deposit libraries in the former Yugoslavia. During the war (1992–5), the library was burnt to the ...

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