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leather

Hell for leather at breakneck speed (originally with reference to riding on horseback). leather or prunella something to which one is completely indifferent, the type of ...

leather

leather   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
46 words

... . The leather trades were important during the Middle Ages and the early modern period when garments, boots and shoes, bottles, belts, saddles, sheaths, etc. were made from tanned hides or dressed skins. Workers in leather formed a sizeable proportion of the workforce, especially in...

Leather

Leather   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,969 words

...reverse of damp leather with a ball tool) and carving. ‘Scorched’ leather is a reddish-brown leather on which a pattern has been made by pressing a heated metal plate on the front surface against a mould at the back. The effect is similar to damask, and it is likely that the ‘leather damask’ referred to in inventories is in fact scorched leather. In Europe, decorated leather was first developed in Córdoba, which was famous by the 10th century for its sheepskin Guademeci ; tanned goatskin was known as córdobane. The fame of Córdoba as a leather centre lies...

leather

leather   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
624 words

...(2) tawed leather , which uses alum and salt instead of tannic acid. The former produces a harder, shinier leather better suited to being decorated with impressed tooling. Tawed leather was extensively used in Europe throughout the medieval period, but from the late 15 th century onwards tanned leather became the norm. *Calfskin , made from the tanned skins of young calves, was the leather most regularly used for bookbinding in England and many European countries throughout the early modern period. It is a fine-grained, durable leather that can be...

Leather

Leather   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,748 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of embossing (working the reverse of damp leather with a ball tool) and carving. ‘Scorched’ leather is a reddish-brown leather on which a pattern has been made by pressing a heated metal plate on the front surface against a mould at the back. The effect is similar to damask, and it is likely that the ‘leather damask’ referred to in inventories is in fact scorched leather. (iii) Moulding. Leather has a unique fibrous structure that allows it to be moulded. In the process known as ‘cuir-bouilli’, vegetable-tanned leather is soaked in cold water until it becomes...

leather

leather   Reference library

Michael Decker

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...as well as by their Arab and steppe-dwelling neighbours were made from leather. Imports of leather from the Persian Empire are attested in the Digest (39, 4, 16, 7) and Babylonian hides are the most expensive mentioned in the Tetrarchic Prices Edict (8, 1a), which also refers to tanning and leather work in Phoenicia and Tralles in Anatolia . At Corycus in Cilicia , no fewer than thirteen boot makers ( kaligarioi ) are listed in inscriptions . Immense demand for leather in the Roman army has led P. Crone to theorize that it was an important...

Leather

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...were used for stitching leather; they were also twisted into ropes, particularly for ships' cordage. Leather or rawhide thongs were used to lash handles to adze and ax blades, and for making furniture joints. Other leather working tools included copper and bronze awls for piercing holes, horns for the enlargement of holes, and bone (later copper) needles and bodkins for sewing and assembling leather pieces. (Replica and reconstructed ancient tools perform well on both thick and thin leathers.) These tools and techniques produced leather goods for many purposes....

Leather

Leather   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
687 words

... . In virtually all ancient cultures of the Near East, animal hides must have been used for a variety of purposes as early as Paleolithic times. In the art and texts of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt we see leather used for clothing, gloves, footwear, tents, containers or pouches, military implements and armor, fittings for animals, ropes, boats and sails, balls, musical instruments, cushions, furniture, and writing materials. The standard of Ur shows early examples of leather harnesses and kilts with the fleece worn in or out as items of...

Leather

Leather   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
283 words

... . The processing of leather does not seem to have attained much importance in antiquity. Not only are terms for leatherworkers in Egyptian papyri (Fikhman, Egipet 29f) infrequent and of uncertain meaning, but most of the artisans listed by Fikhman as working with leather are in fact furriers, saddlers, and shieldmakers. In Rome of the late 3rd to early 4th C. only a few inscriptions mention the guild of tanners — corarii (E. Kornemann, RE 4 [ 1901 ] 458). In Byz., on the other hand, leather processing and the manufacture of leather products became...

leather

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
83 words

... Animal hide, treated to make it hard-wearing and resistant to decay. Most leather comes from cattle hide, but many other kinds of skin are used too. The skin is first cured, via a drying process or the application of salt. It is then washed and prepared for tanning, a process that usually consists of treating the skin with a solution of chromium salts or plant extract ( tannin ). Other processes include dyeing, oiling and the application of various finishes, such as varnish...

leather

leather   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
356 words

... The leather trades were important during the Middle Ages and the early modern period when leather was used for coats and breeches, gloves and bags, as well as for footwear, and for saddles, harness, horse collars, bellows and belts, trunks and bookbindings, and even bottles. Workers in leather formed a sizeable proportion of the workforce, especially in towns. See L. A. Clarkson , ‘The Leather Crafts in Tudor and Stuart England’, Agricultural History Review , 14/1 (1966) ; see also tanning . The fellmongers, curriers, and skinners who prepared leather...

Leather

Leather   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
739 words
Illustration(s):
1

...dyestuffs have rarely survived burial, and most Roman leather on discovery is black or dark brown. Painted decoration was employed and a leather shield cover from Dura Europos has a painted pictorial itinerary recording towns and rivers along the Black Sea coast, while gilding is present on a fragment of upholstery from the Temple of Mithras in London . Analysis of the Valkenburg leather has identified six types of stitching, three methods of seaming and two hemming techniques. Leather Roman leather sandals, one with stamped out decoration, and the other...

leather

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
83 words

... Tanners used skins of unclean animals and so were not highly esteemed by Jews, though the trade was recognized as important (Acts 9: 43). However, tanned rams' skins (Exod. 25: 5, NRSV) were used for the * tabernacle in the * wilderness . Skins were used for containing * wine (Matt. 9: 17), and the skin and hair of goats were used for making tents. * Tarsus , where Paul was born, was a centre of the industry and Paul supported himself by this trade (Acts 18:...

leather

leather   Quick reference

Mike Allaby

Dictionary Plus Science and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
30 words

... A flexible, durable material used to make several items of clothing, handbags, suitcases, furniture covering, etc., that is produced by preparing and chemically treating (tanning) animal hides. Mike...

Russia leather

Russia leather   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
89 words
Illustration(s):
1

...leather Tanned *calfskin saturated with birch tar oil, commonly reddish-brown and patterned with an impressed mesh of small lozenges. It originated in Russia as a method of leather preparation, and is known in Europe from the 17 th century; used for bookbinding in the 18 th and 19 th centuries. The confusions of Russia leather : a cartoon by G. M. Woodward for T. *Tegg ’s Caricature Magazine (1808). The Dublin bookseller’s ledger or *daybook on the counter is dated 1808. The Board of Trinity College Dublin (OLS CARI-ROB-111) David Pearson...

Leather, imitation

Leather, imitation   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
323 words

..., imitation [artificial]. The common name for various types of coated fabric, used in place of true leather. Imitation or artificial leather has been commonly used in furniture, as upholstery for seating furniture, writing surfaces for desks, tables and related forms, and for various articles of clothing and other objects. Early versions of imitation leather were created through the use of a fabric coated with oils, rubber, gums or waxes. For example, in one type, cotton was coated with a layer of boiled linseed oil mixed with dryers and pigments, such as...

Leather Goods

Leather Goods   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...J. “Leather in Antiquity.” In Studies in Ancient Technology , pp. 1–77. Leiden, 1957. General discussion of leather and its preparation in antiquity. Poole, J. B. , and R. Reed . “ The ‘Tannery’ of ῾Ain Feshkha. ” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 93 (1961), 114–123. Disputes the identification of ῾Ein-Feshkha installation as “tannery.” Reed, R. Ancient Skins, Parchments and Leathers . Studies in Archaeological Science. New York, 1972. A thorough discussion of leather and parchment and their preparation in a historical context. Yadin, Yigael . “Leather...

leather‐hard

leather‐hard   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
44 words

...‐hard [De] The state of a pottery vessel after it has been air‐dried, before firing. The clay is stiff enough for the vessel to be picked up without distortion, yet soft enough to respond to pressure for burnishing, attaching handles, and other finishing...

Leather Industry

Leather Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,771 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Egypt. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY) The leather trades were far more important in preindustrial Europe and North America than they are today. Leather making and leather working trades often made up 20 percent of the urban workforce in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England, and shoemaking was the largest leather working craft. Employment in the English leather trades only lagged behind textiles and perhaps the building trades. By 1770 , only woolen textiles had greater value added than the leather trades. In the nineteenth century, when textiles...

LEATHER, burning

LEATHER, burning   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Superstitions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Society and culture, Customs and Traditions
Length:
179 words

... , burning late 18th c. J. RAMSAY ( Scotland in the Eighteenth Century , 438–9) [St Kilda] On the evening before New Year's Day it is usual for the cowherd and the young people to meet together … Each burns in the fire a little of the bit of hide which is tied to the end of the staff. It is applied to the nose of every person and domestic animal that belongs to the house. This, they imagine, will tend much to secure them from diseases and other misfortunes during the ensuing year. 1878 A. MACGREGOR Brahan Seer 137 ‘Superstitions of Highlanders’ On...

fruit leather

fruit leather   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...leather Extruded mixtures of dried fruit purées and other ingredients (such as sugar, starch, glucose, acid, and pectin), as a snack...

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