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law of exercise

A law which states that, in learning, the more frequently a stimulus and response are associated with each other, the more likely the particular response will follow the stimulus. The law ...

law of exercise

law of exercise n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... of exercise n. A proposition formulated in 1911 by the US psychologist Edward Lee Thorndike ( 1874–1949 ) according to which repetition tends to strengthen the association between a stimulus ( 1 ) and a response , making the response more likely to occur on the next presentation of the stimulus. Compare law of effect...

law of exercise

law of exercise   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Medicine and health
Length:
109 words

... of exercise A law which states that, in learning , the more frequently a stimulus and response are associated with each other, the more likely the particular response will follow the stimulus. The law implies that one learns by doing and one cannot learn a skill, for instance, by watching others. It is necessary to practise the skill, because by doing so the bond between stimulus and response is strengthened. In applying this to motor learning, the more often a given movement is repeated, the more firmly established it becomes. The performance of drills...

law of exercise

law of exercise  

A law which states that, in learning, the more frequently a stimulus and response are associated with each other, the more likely the particular response will follow the stimulus. The law implies ...
Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the community after 1800 , tending to regulation and ultimately to direct administration and the exercise of wide discretionary powers from the centre. The early stages of this process represented the growing influence of Bentham and his followers, who were openly contemptuous of the common law. Yet the resilience of common law attitudes inhibited the growth of central government until the second half of the nineteenth century. Ultimately, common law loyalties were only overturned by the imperatives of the new society, rather than by the criticisms of the...

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns   Reference library

‘Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na‘im

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...relationship between the two systems. The hypothesis of this chapter, like that of the preceding chapters, is that if they implement historical shari‘a , Muslims cannot exercise their right to self-determination without violating the rights of others. It is possible, however, to achieve a balance within the framework of Islam as a whole by developing appropriate principles of modern Islamic public law. Stating the objectives of the chapter in this way raises the initial question of the relevance of so-called universal human rights to shari‘a , or for that...

The Modernist Majority Report

The Modernist Majority Report   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,627 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is not only capable of moving along with the progressive and evolutionary forces of life but also of directing them into new and healthy channels in every epoch. The creation of Pakistan was a revolutionary step, and all revolutions demand primary remolding of the educational system and the recasting of laws and the judicial system to fulfill the aspirations of a free and expanding life. But Pakistan, at its very inception, was faced with problems of sheer existence and self-preservation. Ugly situations created by the hostility of neighbors and economic...

Democracy and Shura

Democracy and Shura   Reference library

Sadek J. Sulaiman

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...principle is the commitment that certain fundamental citizens’ rights shall not be violated—for example, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, and the free exercise of religion. 4. Political parties in the democratic system play an important role. By means of political parties, people freely associate on the basis of their convictions about how to achieve a fulfilling life for themselves, their family, and their posterity. ...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on ‘lawsof human nature and of the economic market, clerics in particular saw properly constituted and well-exercised charity as the key to re-establishing harmony between social classes. By 1822 London alone had nearly 500 benevolent institutions. Here and in the provinces, charity expressed more than one social vision and was an important focus for middle-class male sociability, political aspiration, and influence; it offered women formal opportunities to exercise patronage and assert their capabilities, albeit usually under the direction of men. The...

Reason and Individual Reasoning

Reason and Individual Reasoning   Reference library

Khan Muqtedar

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,104 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...does not play any role in discerning these same principles and laws from the Quran and Sunna. Indeed, this sug-gestion is explicit since the process of understanding Islamic principles from the Quran and Sunna is said to depend more on linguistic sciences than on reasoning. The process of divining principles and laws from texts and relating it to the present context is deemed as an exercise that depends solely on the knowledge of language and historical context ( asbab al-nuzul ). The role of reason in this process is not recognized. It is supposed to be a...

Political Theory of Islam

Political Theory of Islam   Reference library

Mawdūdī Abū-L-‘Alā’

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,340 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of state. Two funda-mental points emerge from it. 1. The first point is that Islam uses the term “vicegerency” ( khilāfa ) instead of sovereignty. Since, according to Islam, sovereignty belongs to God alone, anyone who holds power and rules in accordance with the laws of God would undoubtedly be the vicegerent of the Supreme Ruler and would not be authorised to exercise any powers other than those delegated to him. 2. The second point stated in the verse is that the power to rule over the earth has been promised to the whole community of...

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam   Reference library

Muhammad Iqbal

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,677 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...These schools of law recognize three degrees of ijtihad : (1) complete authority in legislation which is practically confined to the founders of the schools, (2) relative authority which is to be exercised within the limits of a particular school, and (3) special authority which relates to the determining of the law applicable to a particular case left undetermined by the founders. In this paper I am concerned with the first degree of ijtihad only, i.e. complete authority in legislation. The theoretical possibility of this degree of ijtihad is admitted by...

The Second Message of Islam

The Second Message of Islam   Reference library

Mahmoud Mohamed Taha

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,854 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the sense of the ultimate Islam. They merely surrendered in the sense of the initial Islam. The disciples were Muslims in the sense of initial Islam, since even the first stage of ultimate Islam requires moving out of the law for the community as a whole, and entering upon shari‘a fardiya , the law for the individual. Individuality is achieved only after perfect compliance with the law for the community, until one is able to properly exercise his absolute individual freedom. The ultimate Islam is the level of individualities. ...

Islamic Government

Islamic Government   Reference library

Khumaynī Āyatullāh Rūhullāh

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,681 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that the absence of the government means the loss and violation of the bastions of the Moslems and means our failure to gain our right and our land. Is this permitted in our religion? Isn’t the government one of the necessities of life? Despite the absence of a provision designating an individual to act on behalf of the Imām in the case of his absence, the presence of the qualities of the religious ruler in any individual still qualify him to rule the people. These qualities, which are knowledge of the law and justice, are available in most of our jurisprudents...

Romans

Romans   Reference library

Craig C. Hill and Craig C. Hill

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,053 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Paul wrote that Israel ‘pursued a law of righteousness’ but ‘did not arrive at’ (or ‘attain’) ‘law’. The meaning oflaw’, ‘righteousness’, ‘law of righteousness’, and ‘attain law’ in v. 31 have been debated extensively with no resulting consensus. It is not even clear whether it was the ‘pursuit’ of law itself or the inability to ‘attain’ (‘catch up with’, Fitzmyer 1993 : 577 ) law that Paul faults. If the former, Paul might be saying that Israel's pursuit of ‘legal righteousness’ could not lead them to the law's true goal (as possibly in 10:4 ). If...

Dialogue Between East and West

Dialogue Between East and West   Reference library

Mohammad Khatami Ayatollah

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,648 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and the Islamic world, the people of Italy developed a sense of tolerance. The Italians had been familiar with Islamic civilization since the time of the Crusades, and they admired it. Speaking of the historical past without any reference to the future would be an idle academic exercise, whereas it is imperative upon us, for the sake of helping human communities and improving the state of the world, to find out how the relations of Asian countries, and especially those of the Muslim countries, with Europe stand today. Why? Because Muslims and...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,202 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...also amateurs: while engaged in the exercise of the law, they were not bound to have any legal training (although they were expected to defer to their lawyer colleagues). Membership of the Commission was only open to men who met a minimum property qualification and who, until the Commission of the Peace was opened to men with ‘commercial’ wealth in the 1830s, were normally significant landowners . (The exception to this rule were clerical justices.) They were largely unsupervised. In the 17th century reports on the conduct of JPs might be made by the assize ...

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire   Reference library

Barbara Geller

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Judaism are forms of rabbinic Judaism. But during the formative centuries of rabbinic Judaism, it is unclear how much authority the rabbis exercised outside their own circles, especially over the Jewish communities of the Roman Diaspora. As the historian Shaye Cohen has aptly summarized, the Diaspora communities probably celebrated the Sabbath, followed Jewish dietary laws, and worshiped God quite independently of the rabbis. In Palestine, the rabbinic presence and rabbinic authority seem to have increased significantly from the second to the...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on the basis of Smith's more straightforward case for free trade. Ricardo 's Principles of Political Economy , first published in 1817 , was an elaboration of a deductive model of growth and the distribution of its results between rent, profits, and wages that Ricardo had originally formulated as part of his case for the gradual withdrawal of agricultural protection in the corn law debates of 1814–15 . It embodied a theory of rent derived from the law of diminishing returns, but in contrast with Malthus's more harmonistic formulation of this theory it...

Policing

Policing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,788 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...report, which painted a terrifying picture of the vulnerability of the English countryside to a constant horde of itinerant criminals, vagrants, and beggars. That report, Chadwick claimed, ‘proved’ that crimes against property were not ‘caused by blameless poverty or destitution’ but by ‘the temptations of the profit of a career of depredation, as compared with the profits of honest and even well paid industry’. Chadwick was also the author of the deterrent New Poor Law of 1834 , with its central principle of ‘less eligible’ treatment for paupers in...

Introduction to the Pentateuch

Introduction to the Pentateuch   Reference library

G. I. Davies

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
32,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...be obtained, and so the necessity of a late date for P established. 2. The second kind of argument was based on the relationship of the laws and narratives of P to the laws in Deuteronomy and the final chapters of Ezekiel. The origin of Deuteronomy in the eighth or seventh century bce was generally regarded in the mid-nineteenth century as having been established beyond doubt by the critical arguments of W. M. L. de Wette and others, and Ezekiel was of course a prophet of the early sixth century. In a number of ways it was argued that the Priestly texts...

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