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language of thought

Subject: Philosophy

Following Aristotle some have argued that the significance of spoken words derives from intrinsically meaningful interior ‘speech’. According to Ockham the propositio vocalis is posterior ...

language of thought

language of thought   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
246 words

... of thought . Following Aristotle some have argued that the significance of spoken words derives from intrinsically meaningful interior ‘speech’. According to Ockham the propositio vocalis is posterior to and dependent upon the propositio mentalis . More recently Fodor has argued that thought is a form of symbol manipulation, and that language-learning involves the correlationof conventional symbols with those of one's innatemental language. Two main considerations are regularly advanced in support of the language of thought hypothesis. First,...

language of thought hypothesis

language of thought hypothesis   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
151 words

... of thought hypothesis The hypothesis especially associated with Fodor , that mental processing occurs in a language different from one’s ordinary native language, but underlying and explaining our competence with it. The idea is a development of the Chomskyan notion of an innate universal grammar. It is a way of drawing the analogy between the workings of the brain or mind and those of a standard computer, since computer programs are linguistically complex sets of instructions whose execution explains the surface behaviour of the computer. As an...

language of thought

language of thought  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Following Aristotle some have argued that the significance of spoken words derives from intrinsically meaningful interior ‘speech’. According to Ockham the propositio vocalis is posterior to and ...
Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...parts of speech represented neither categories of things nor acts of minds. Ultimately Tooke traced all parts of speech to the noun and the verb. Nouns and verbs, the originals of all the parts of speech, did reflect mental acts in so far as they were the result of sense impressions, but with this change in perspective, language could be seen as the product of a material context. Where Burnett had claimed that language was the artificial construction of extraordinarily gifted individuals, versions of himself cast in primitive times, Tooke believed that...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...None of these ancient or modern systems is capable of expressing ‘any and all thought’, but each is good at specialized communication (DeFrancis, Visible Speech , 4). 2 Development and diffusion of writing systems To express the full range of human thought requires a writing system intimately linked with spoken language. For, as the founder of modern linguistics, Ferdinand de Saussure, wrote, language may be compared to a sheet of paper: ‘Thought is on one side of the sheet and sound on the reverse side. Just as it is impossible to take a pair of scissors...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...perceptions, and thoughts. It is only because his mental capacities are similar to those of people in general that they will be willing to accept his account of mental functions and laws. To Jeffrey philosophers should be cartographers or grammarians, not chemists, of mental life: We acquire a perfect knowledge of our own minds without study or exertion, just as we acquire a perfect knowledge of our native language or our native parish; yet we cannot, without much study and reflection, compose a grammar of the one, or a map of the other. Philosophers...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...conception of conflicting class interests within their cognitive system. More recently, the issue has resurfaced in the form of whether a language of class is indispensable for expressing a consciousness of class, especially when it is clear that radicals and oppositionists, even between 1789 and 1839 , frequently structured their collective identities in terms of other keywords and concepts, such as the category of ‘the People’. Under the influence of modern constitutive models of language, several historians have argued that the language of ‘the People’...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...), and Ottabah Cugoano ’s Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil and Wicked Traffic of Slavery ( 1787 ). The most famous remains The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African ( 1789 ). Much of sub-Saharan Africa’s indigenous print and publishing history is most deeply marked by the complex consequences of the work of 18 th - and 19 th -century Christian missionaries. Their idea of the book—and of the Book—as a symbolic marker of a newly configured African engagement with European models of modernity promoted print...

Literary Theory

Literary Theory   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,935 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...This is in part because it relies on a direct relation between nature and subjectivity (between nature, sense impressions, and thought) which, as it is propounded in the Preface, relies on the associationist *psychology [39] of David Hartley ( 1705–57 ). Outside this context, the belief that ‘nature and the language of the sense’ are ‘The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse, / The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul / Of all my moral being’ can appear more tenuous. The year in which Lyrical Ballads was first published, 1798 , saw a Britain...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...carried by it in 1797 is thought to be the first in Gujarati characters: its type was cast by a press employee named Jijibhāi Chhāpghar . Robert Drummond , who wrote a Grammar of the Malabar Language in 1799 and for whom Jijibhāi also cast type, hailed him as an ‘ingenious artist who, without any other help or information than what he gleaned from Chamber’s Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, succeeded in completing a font of the Guzzeratty types a few years ago’ (Priolkar, 73). The first Maratha characters are likewise thought to have appeared in an...

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,050 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... The written Slovak language, based on western Slovak dialect, was codified by Anton Bernolák in 1787 . 3.2 The 19 th century and after At the end of the 18 th century, the Slovak National Revival, together with Enlightenment ideas, spurred the growth of printing, publishing, bookselling, and the founding of libraries. In 1843 , L’udovít Štúr, leader of the revival movement, introduced written Slovak based on the dialect of central Slovakia: this became the language of the revivalists and was accepted as the standard national language. Slovak revivalist...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,978 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...nature of language and lack of a divine revelation within the religious tradition probably formed the context for the use of many languages in Buddhism. Contrary to common presuppositions, the multiple languages for Buddhist scripture did not compromise its authenticity or authority. These religious traditions also exhibited differences with respect to the issue of the canon, the authoritative and official body of writings of a religious tradition. From a cross-cultural perspective, a canon can be considered closed, as in the cases of Judaism, Islam,...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,432 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and language to thought and feeling. For our continued influxes of feeling are modified and directed by our thoughts, which are indeed the representatives of all our past feelings; and as by contemplating the relation of these general representatives to each other, we discover what is really important to men, so by the repetition and continuance of this act feelings connected with important subjects will be nourished, till at length, if we be originally possessed of much organic sensibility, such habits of mind will be produced that by obeying blindly and...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to purge their *language [40] of the stigma of provinciality by eliminating ‘Scoticisms’, they were also proud to be Scottish. Enlightened accounts of cosmopolitanism drew on the classical notion of spreading circles of affections so that true citizens of the world would necessarily retain strong affections for their own community. Scottish Enlightenment thought was similarly both distinctive and yet recognizable as part of the wider enlightened quest to provide a general understanding of humanity. That quest thrived upon the exchange of ideas. David...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...audience and ethos. This group and its language escaped scrutiny in Hazlitt's opposition between the prose that is misshapen by social and material circumstance, on the one hand, and the prose he wished to hear speaking from the inner logic of language and the transhistorical place of critical thought. It was not casually that Hazlitt voiced his deep reservations about the positive tendencies of ‘public opinion’ in the literary magazine begun by John Scott ( 1783–1821 ) in 1820 . The liberal London Magazine contributed as much as the conservative ...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and those of the human species as a whole did anticipate social Darwinism, but the evolutionary discrimination of peoples and the characterization of races was never an end in itself, as it later came to be. Scottish Enlightenment comparative studies of property, kinship, language, and political institutions should be seen not as part of a unified progressive scheme, but rather as a self-reflective analysis of problems of government, commerce, and refinement. Their interest was not in bolstering a sense of the superiority of the civilized world by...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a knowledge of the ancient languages, women turned their hand to a form and subject they could master by themselves. If the supposedly ‘unexacting’ requirements of the novel's language were thought to suit women's nervous systems and education, the form also encouraged them to express their preoccupations with the gender arrangements governing domestic lives. Women's entering fictional worlds coincided with their entering public life for pleasure, a dramatic reversal of their exclusion from most recreational culture. The burgeoning attractions of shopping and...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...plugtail ). Grose implicitly connects his interest in the language of ‘seamen at the cap-stern, ladies disposing of their fish, criminals en route for Tyburn’ with the vast illicit production in French at this time of offensive print materials, including *pornography and personal scandal, though he contrasts in political terms the vulgar argot of Britain with that of France: ‘the freedom of thought and speech privileged by our constitution gives a force and poignancy to the expressions of our common people not to be found under arbitrary governments’. In...

Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...qualities, but also, as in the discourse of *political economy [33] , the appropriation into the masculine realm of those activities like productive labour once thought of as belonging to both men and women. As Mary *Shelley illustrated in Frankenstein ( 1818 ), even capacities once thought of as necessarily female—the ability to give birth, or to create life—were being appropriated by masculinist *natural philosophy [34] . The changing role of men within the family has recently become a subject of extensive historical interest as scholars have...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the quality of the texts. The central idea was that the study of Greek and, to a lesser extent, Latin should be at the heart of the educational canon; however, the correct printing of Greek, with its numerous combinations of breathings and *accents , presented a considerable obstacle. The first individual to overcome these challenges successfully, Aldus placed at the core of European pedagogical thinking the concept that the education of young gentlemen and of governing elites should be based on the intensive study of a remote dead language. The net outcome...

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