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Overview

labor Markets

A place where labour supply is exchanged for a wage. Labour markets can be identified by a combination of such factors as geography (local, regional, national, international), industry, ...

Labor Markets

Labor Markets   Reference library

Peter Scholliers, Joyce Burnette, and Toni Pierenkemper

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
8,265 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Modern Europe . Cambridge, 1997. Ehrenberg, Ronald , and Robert Smith . Modern Labor Economics . London, 1985. Fallon, Peter , and Donald Verry . The Economics of Labour Markets . Oxford, 1988. Grantham, George , and Mary MacKinnon , eds. Labour Market Evolution: The Economic History of Market Integration: Wage Flexibility and the Employment Relation . London and New York, 1994. Hatton, Timothy , and Jeffrey Williamson , eds. Migration and the International Labor Market, 1850–1939 . London and New York, 1994. Leclercq, Eric . Les théories du marché du...

Labor Markets

Labor Markets   Reference library

Joshua L. Rosenbloom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
3,004 words

... Markets The term “labor market” does not refer to a particular location or set of institutions. Instead it describes the processes of labor allocation in an economy, that is, the methods by which employers fill vacancies and workers find jobs, as well as the internal allocation of labor within businesses, households, and other economic organizations. The interaction of supply and demand in the market determines wages and employment. The historical study of labor markets has two major objectives. The first is to describe how labor is allocated over time...

Labor Markets.

Labor Markets.   Reference library

Joshua L. Rosenbloom

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,841 words

...Labor Markets. The term “labor market” does not refer to a particular location or set of institutions. Instead it describes the processes of labor allocation in an economy, that is, the methods by which employers fill vacancies and workers find jobs, as well as the internal allocation of labor within businesses, households, and other economic organizations. The interaction of supply and demand in the market determines wages and employment. The historical study of labor markets has two major objectives. The first is to describe how labor is allocated over time...

Internal Labor Markets

Internal Labor Markets   Reference library

Anders Fremstad

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,400 words

...substantial internal labor markets. Internal labor markets may be critical to the success of large, vertically integrated businesses. Internal labor markets are essentially small-scale command economies, since they price and allocate labor following a set of rules instead of relying on the market. In his 1967 book The New Industrial State , John Kenneth Galbraith emphasizes that firms develop internal labor markets in both capitalist and state-socialist economies. When facing competitive product markets and labor markets, firms must develop rules...

Labor Markets, Informal

Labor Markets, Informal   Reference library

Ted A. Henken

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,422 words

...inefficiency, and scarcity. Sustained lobbying by businesses that rely on immigrant and informal labor have led to legal loopholes and the lax enforcement of labor laws that ultimately provide easy access to immigrant labor. This tolerance is especially evident in the inconsistent application of many immigration and labor laws in the United States. Who Participates in the Informal Labor Sector? While it is true that many workers turn to the informal labor market as a means of survival (a safety net for the excluded, unskilled, or undocumented), others utilize...

Labor Markets, Informal

Labor Markets, Informal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,230 words

...labor market in the United States can specifically be attributed to the economic restructuring that transformed the country into a postindustrial economy. This transformation has altered the way in which labor markets are organized. The shift from manufacturing to service sector jobs, the increase in marginal forms of employment (part-time, subcontracting, outsourcing, consultancy, among others), the growth in the number of small businesses, the overall decline in male labor force participation, and the simultaneous influx of new immigrant labor from the...

Segmented Labor Markets, Primary and Secondary

Segmented Labor Markets, Primary and Secondary   Reference library

Kit Smemo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Labor Markets, Primary and Secondary The concept of segmented labor markets emerged in the 1970s and 1980s to explain how the organization of labor markets contributed to the historical disunity of the American working class. Inspired by elements of institutional labor economics and new labor and social histories, radical economists and labor historians explored the historical development of capitalism in terms of the organization of work. First, the theory of the dual labor market examined the separation of workers into a stable, high-wage primary market...

labor Markets

labor Markets  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A place where labour supply is exchanged for a wage. Labour markets can be identified by a combination of such factors as geography (local, regional, national, international), industry, education, ...
labor market

labor market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...labor market The workforce and the industrial, commercial, domestic, and foreign industries that employ them. Globalization has complicated their interactions and introduced additional fluctuating economic, social, political, and environmental factors into this “market.” Health conditions, such as the presence or absence of endemic and epidemic disease, and perceptions of the health hazards associated with some occupations may further complicate the picture. ...

Labor Markets, Informal

Labor Markets, Informal  

The informal labor market can be defined as the production and sale of licit goods and services that manage to avoid labor and safety regulations, taxation, and official record keeping. ...
labour market

labour market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
85 words

...labour market A place where labour supply is exchanged for a wage. Labour markets can be identified by a combination of such factors as geography (local, regional, national, international), industry, education, licensing or certification, and occupation. More generally, labour market can refer to the processes by which workers and employers are brought into contact, and wages and conditions of work are decided. Some of these involve formal institutions: contacts between workers and employers may be arranged by employment exchanges or agencies, either public...

labour market

labour market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,176 words

... market In a labour market, human effort (or labour power) is made into a commodity, which is bought and sold under terms which in law are deemed to constitute a contract. The purchase and sale of formally free labour developed extensively with capitalism , but alternative paths to industrialization (such as real socialism ) have entailed wage employment, though not strictly a free market for labour. Economists argue that, as with other factors of production , the market for labour can be understood as a special case of the general theory of prices,...

labour market

labour market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
739 words

...regulatory institutions that affect the character of labour markets. For instance, it was shown that many labour markets are internal to firms, meaning that otherwise well-qualified workers outside the firm were not given the chance to apply for vacancies. Relatedly, these researchers identified dual labour markets, wherein a ‘glass ceiling’ prevented low-skilled workers advancing to medium- or high- skilled jobs. Connected to this, feminist and anti-racist scholars showed how discrimination in labour markets mirrored the discrimination that women and ethnic...

segmented labour market

segmented labour market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...labour market A dual labour market may be composed of skilled and unskilled segments. ‘Welfare, tax and labour-market institutions continue to facilitate and maintain a segmented labour market with a wide range of employment systems and practices, making it virtually impossible for the growing proportion of the labour force in low-wage, service-dominated jobs to achieve independent living on an individual basis’ ( McDowell (2004) PHG 28, 2 ). See also Hedberg, SULCIS W. Paper ...

internal labour market

internal labour market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Resource Management (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
161 words

...internal labour market ( ILM ) The supply of employees within the organization who could fill a job vacancy. The distinction is drawn between the external and internal labour markets because they both offer a different type of supply of labour and skills. Recruiting to a position from the internal market is lower risk because a lot is known about the person being promoted or transferred: their previous performance, their strengths and weaknesses, their soft skills , and their attitudes. In addition, the internal candidates are already familiar with the...

labour-market segmentation

labour-market segmentation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,291 words
Illustration(s):
1

...groups has been developed much further in theories that are identified under the general label of labour-market segmentation theory. The two key formulations are the theories of dual (or split) labour markets and of internal labour markets, both developed in the United States by Peter Doeringer and Michael Piore ( Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis , 1971) and others ( Richard Edwards , Michael Reich , and David Gordon , Labor Market Segmentation , 1975 ), and extended through empirical research. A framework obtained by integrating these...

labour market intermediary

labour market intermediary   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Resource Management (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
64 words

...labour market intermediary An organization that exists to connect workers seeking work with employers who are offering employment. Public agencies, such as Jobcentre Plus , can fulfil this role, though it is increasingly undertaken by a range of specialist firms that include employment agencies , recruitment consultants , and executive search consultants . Trade unions may also act as labour market intermediaries when they operate a hiring hall...

external labour market

external labour market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Resource Management (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
106 words

...external labour market The supply of potential employees outside the organization. This can be local, regional, national, or international. A distinction is often made between the external and internal labour market , because they offer very different supplies of labour. The former provides a chance to bring in people with new skills, different experiences, and new ways of working. In contrast the internal market fills posts typically through promotion so the candidates are known to the existing managers and the appointments are considered to be less risky....

external labour market

external labour market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
116 words

...external labour market The system by which recruitment for senior appointments in an organization is mainly by open competition. It is contrasted with an internal labour market , in which senior posts are filled mainly by promoting existing employees in lower-grade jobs. The main merits of an external labour market are that open competition provides a wider choice for senior appointments, and that outsiders may bring new ideas to an organization. The main merits of internal labour markets are that a firm is likely to know more about the strengths and...

internal labour market

internal labour market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
72 words

...internal labour market The system by which recruitment for senior appointments in an organization is mainly from existing employees in lower-grade jobs. The main merits of internal labour markets are that a firm is likely to know more about the strengths and weaknesses of existing employees than outsiders, and that a reputation for internal promotion as its preferred strategy may assist in recruitment and retention of staff. See also external labour market...

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