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journalism

The first newspapers, and journalists, arrived in Canada with British conquest and settlement. Utterly dependent for revenue on government advertising, they loyally endorsed their patrons ...

journalism

journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
551 words

.... Scholarly attempts at understanding and explaining journalism saw the emergence during the late 20th century of the field of journalism studies . See also accuracy ; amateur journalism ; boundary maintenance ; citizen journalism ; ethical journalism ; golden age of journalism ; gutter journalism ; McJournalism ; news . Further reading: T. Harcup , Journalism: Principles and Practice (2009). D. Randall , The Universal Journalist (2011). L. Sheridan Burns , Understanding Journalism ...

gutter journalism

gutter journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
28 words

...gutter journalism A derogatory term for whatever sort of journalism of which the speaker disapproves. Compare ethical journalism ; golden age of journalism . See also intrusion ; sensationalism ; yellow journalism...

Journalism Education

Journalism Education   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
38 words

...Journalism Education A peer-reviewed open access online journal launched in 2012 by the Association for Journalism Education to publish research, commentary, and reflection on journalism in general and journalism education in particular. http://journalism-education.org/ All issues of Journalism...

Journalism Studies

Journalism Studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
51 words

...Journalism Studies A peer-reviewed academic journal launched in 2000 under the editorship of Professor Bob Franklin to publish the work of international researchers in the field of journalism studies and journalism education . Related journals Journalism Practice and Digital Journalism were launched in 2007 and 2013 respectively. See also academization of journalism...

campaigning journalism

campaigning journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
41 words

...campaigning journalism ( crusading journalism ) Reporting with a bee in its bonnet about a particular issue, when news organizations or even individual journalists repeatedly report on wrongs that, they argue, must be righted. See also advocacy journalism ; campaign ; investigative journalism ; oppositional reporting...

development journalism

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A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
51 words

...development journalism A form of reporting that places an emphasis on the perspectives of developing countries, primarily in the global south, rather than reproducing the dominant views or media practices of elite nations . Compare cultural imperialism ; news flow ; representation . See also advocacy journalism ; alternative journalism ; Asian values in journalism ; peace journalism...

open journalism

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A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
61 words

...open journalism The idea that journalism is at its best if it involves interaction and two-way conversations between journalist and audience, and therefore that online journalism ought not to be hidden behind paywalls . Perhaps most associated with the Guardian ’s online brand , it has been described by some critics as a failed business model. See also collaborative journalism ; crowdsourcing ; interactivity ; networked journalism...

public journalism

public journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
48 words

...public journalism A term used in the USA from the 1990s to describe a form of journalism that seeks to promote civic engagement and citizens’ participation in democratic structures, and/or to bemoan the absence of such journalism from much commercial media. See also civic journalism ; democracy ; public sphere...

radical journalism

radical journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
50 words

...radical journalism Forms of journalism that can be found in alternative media , feminist media , the radical press , the underground press , and occasionally in odd corners of the mainstream media , that might articulate a critical perspective on society or eschew the established conventions of journalism—or both. See also oppositional reporting...

peace journalism

peace journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
117 words

...journalism A form of reporting that questions the narrative of the inevitability of war while emphasizing long-term causes of, and possible solutions to, conflict . Peace journalism also tends to advocate a human rights approach to global issues and to allow civilians caught up in conflict zones to speak for themselves. It can be seen as an example of advocacy and/or development journalism , and it is often found within forms of alternative media . Scholarly work in the area of peace journalism also operates as a critique of the ‘war journalism’ and...

advocacy journalism

advocacy journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
95 words

...advocacy journalism A form of reporting that is designed to speak up for a particular cause, policy, campaign, organization, nation, section of the population, neighbourhood, or even an individual. Advocacy journalism eschews a commitment to formal objectivity , impartiality , or giving both sides of a story an equal hearing, although it tends to be less aggressive in tone than adversarial journalism . However, as with adversarial and campaigning journalism , critics object to the blurring of comment and facts that is implicit (and sometimes explicit)...

print journalism

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A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
82 words

...print journalism A generic term for journalism produced to be published as a series of collated pages in a printed format such as a newspaper or a magazine . Many but not all of the practices established initially in print journalism have subsequently been incorporated into or adapted for broadcast journalism and online journalism . In the digital age, print-style journalism may also be produced without the actual printing element, with pages placed online or delivered directly to readers’ mobile devices. See also press...

slow journalism

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A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
78 words

...slow journalism A concept of journalism that puts quality, depth, and accuracy above speed. Inspired by the ‘slow food’ movement, adherents of slow journalism argue that journalists need the time and space to do their jobs properly by getting out of the office, nurturing a range of contacts , building trust , reading documents, and generally engaging in reflective practice . Compare ambient journalism ; McJournalism ; never wrong for long ; rolling news . See also long-form journalism ....

journalism education

journalism education   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
142 words

...journalism education The combination of the training of journalists that takes place on vocational courses and the critical inquiry into journalism that tends to be undertaken on more academically oriented journalism studies courses. Journalism education within higher education has a much longer history in the USA than in the UK, but the latter has been catching up in recent years with journalism in both countries now largely a graduate occupation. Journalism education can on occasion involve a blurring of the two strands of training and critical theory ,...

adversarial journalism

adversarial journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
148 words

...can turn reporting into propaganda , simultaneously damaging trust in journalism and lowering the quality of discussion within the public sphere . See also advocacy journalism ; alternative journalism ; campaigning journalism ; investigative journalism ; journalism of attachment . 2. A phrase sometimes used as criticism of a form of broadcast interview that is almost ritualistically antagonistic and is often said to generate more heat than...

mainstream journalism

mainstream journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
82 words

...journalism Any form of journalistic output produced or published by a hierarchically structured commercial media outlet, or by a major publicly funded media organization ( see BBC ; mainstream media ), and which conforms to the established norms, customs, and practices of the industry. Mainstream journalism is variously said to function as society’s watchdog , a facilitator of democracy , a nurturer of the public sphere , an inculcator of ruling-class ideology , and a means of manufacturing consent . Compare alternative journalism . See...

new journalism

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A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
76 words

...new journalism A label applied both to the trend for more popular styles and subject matter in late 19th-century US and UK journalism and to the more narrative-driven long-form and gonzo journalism that emerged in the 1960s. Its earlier use contrasted the new, lighter style with more serious and political journalism, whereas its later use signified a more discursive style that rejected the emphasis traditionally placed on neutrality and facts . See also immersion reporting ; literary journalism...

amateur journalism

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A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
89 words

...amateur journalism Journalism produced without the payment of either fee or wage. This can range from an individual hobbyist publishing a niche newsletter for circulation amongst a small number of fellow enthusiasts to an alternative media collective producing revelatory investigative journalism for a sizeable yet not commercially viable audience. Somewhere between these two extremes might be special-interest or hyperlocal bloggers whose output incorporates a range of journalistic techniques but who do not (yet) make any money from their efforts. See...

ambient journalism

ambient journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
63 words

...ambient journalism Journalism that is produced, distributed, and received continuously via new communications technology such as social networking , microblogging , and Twitter , becoming an almost invisible yet virtually ever-present factor in many people’s lives. Such journalism may originate from paid journalists and mainstream media organizations, user-generated content , or a mixture of the two. Compare slow journalism . See also digital media ; digital natives ; online journalism...

bimedia journalism

bimedia journalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
88 words

...journalism When a story is covered for both radio and television by the same journalist or editorial team, often using audio for the radio version that has been repurposed from a television package . Bimedia journalism was seen as the future by the BBC in the 1990s, when some distinct TV and radio newsrooms were converted to bimedia operations. Since then it has been somewhat supplanted, first by converged journalism ( see convergence ) and today by journalism that may be delivered on multiple platforms . See also multiskilled journalism...

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