Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-20 of 1,823 entries  for:

  • All: job Characteristics Model x
clear all

View:

Overview

job Characteristics Model

(JCM) The Job Characteristics Model, developed by organizational psychologists J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham, is a normative approach to job enrichment (see job redesign). ...

Job Characteristics Model

Job Characteristics Model   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Resource Management (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
295 words

...Job Characteristics Model ( JCM ) The Job Characteristics Model, developed by organizational psychologists J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham , is a normative approach to job enrichment ( see job redesign ). It specifies five core job dimensions that will lead to critical psychological states in the individual employee. The first three dimensions are: ( a ) skill variety (the range of tasks performed); ( b ) task identity (the ability to complete the whole job from start to finish); and ( c ) task significance (the impact of the job on...

job Characteristics Model

job Characteristics Model  

(JCM)The Job Characteristics Model, developed by organizational psychologists J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham, is a normative approach to job enrichment (see job redesign). It specifies five core ...
1 Chronicles

1 Chronicles   Reference library

H. P. Mathys, H. P. Mathys, and H. P. Mathys

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,015 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...anger that leads David to carry out a census (as in the source model), but Satan. Japhet ( 1997 : 145–8) presumes this to be an anonymous human persuader. It is more likely, however, that this is the same figure mentioned in Job 1 and Zech 3 . The Chronicler reinterprets unacceptable elements of the source model, taking the perspective of Job 1 . Nothing explicit in the text explains the sinful nature of a census. Joab resists David's plan more strongly here than in the source model, actually using the word ‘trespass’ ( v. 3 ; NRSV, ‘guilt’) and...

Ecclesiasticus, or The Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach

Ecclesiasticus, or The Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach   Reference library

John J. Collins and John J. Collins

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
38,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Wis 3 . Sirach echoes the language of older Scripture to make his point. The questions in vv. 10 and 11 recall the arguments of Job's friends (e.g. Job 4:7; 8:8 ) and the assertion of the psalmist that he has never seen a righteous man go hungry ( Ps 37:25 ). Since Job's friends are eventually rebuked by God, we might have expected more reticence on the part of Sirach here. He could, of course, point to the restoration of Job to support his point. The scriptural warrant for Sirach's confidence is found in Ex 34:6–7 : the Lord is ‘a God merciful and...

Introduction to the Old Testament

Introduction to the Old Testament   Reference library

John Barton

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,263 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...portents to gain insight into the future, and this is manifested by Joseph in Genesis, and in the book of Daniel. Two books, Job and Ecclesiastes, seem to reflect on deficiencies within the traditions of wisdom, and argue for a generally sceptical and non-committal attitude towards the mysteries of life. They are part of a general tendency towards greater pessimism about human capabilities of reason and understanding, characteristic of post-exilic Jewish thought. (See Crenshaw 1981 .) 7. Prophecy. ‘Prophecy’, like ‘wisdom’, is something of a catch-all term...

Tobit

Tobit   Reference library

Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ and Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,111 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...taunt of Job's wife ( Job 2:9 ). Her vituperation finds a parallel in that of the maid in 3:8 . 3:1–6 , Tobit's prayer: in this first formal prayer of the book, Tobit begs God for pardon from offences unwittingly committed and for release from this life, which he finds so greatly burdened with affliction, distress, and insult. 3:6 , ‘eternal home’, i.e. Sheol, described in Job 7:9–10; 10:21–2; 14:12 as an abode from which no one returns; ‘it is better for me to die’, cf. Jon 4:3, 8; also Num 11:15 (Moses); 1 Kings 19:4 (Elijah); Job 7:15 (Job). (...

2 Thessalonians

2 Thessalonians   Reference library

Philip F. Esler and Philip F. Esler

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...) and the latter is associated with the sudden destruction of unbelievers. So, maybe some Christians in Thessalonica reacted to a local (or perhaps widespread) disaster by claiming that it manifested the wrath of God, thereby creating turmoil and encouraging some to give up their jobs and and continue urgent, full-time evangelism. Thus Paul is compelled to write another letter perhaps only a matter of weeks after the first wherein the friendly encouragement gives way to a more frigid and authoritarian tone. 4. A major question hanging over proposals like those...

The Wisdom of Solomon

The Wisdom of Solomon   Reference library

William Horbury and William Horbury

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,675 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and in versions made from the Greek, forms a high point not only in ancient Jewish literature but also in Greek literature as a whole; yet it belongs above all to the sapiential stream of Jewish biblical tradition, and crowns the series of earlier biblical wisdom-books: Proverbs, Job, Ecclesiastes, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach). In the early church it was one of the books linked with Solomon, together with Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, and the non-canonical Psalms, Odes , and Testament of Solomon (ET in Sparks 1984 : 649–751 ); but Solomonic...

Revelation

Revelation   Reference library

Richard Bauckham and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
23,754 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...‘conquer’. vv. 5–6 , the two prophets are modelled on Moses and Elijah (both on both, not one on each; cf. 2 Kings 1:10–12; 1 Kings 17:1; Ex 7:14–24 ), the two great OT prophets who confronted pagan idolatry, Moses at the Exodus, Elijah in the time of Jezebel ( cf. 2:20 ). The judgements they command ( v. 6 ) recall those of chs. 6, 8–9 , and are no more effective in producing repentance, v. 7 , the beast appears for the first time, anticipating his full introduction in ch. 13 , along with his characteristic activity of conquering the saints ( 13:7 ). ...

Philippians

Philippians   Reference library

Robert Murray, SJ and Robert Murray, SJ

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,932 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for the future: ‘I know [the verb is repeated at v. 25 ] that…this will result in my deliverance.’ Verbally this is one of the few OT allusions in Philippians; it reproduces the Greek of Job 13:16 , in a passage that expresses Job's invincible trust in a transcendent justice. But in Paul's very different situation he is hardly likely to be comparing himself with Job; the coincidence of language could almost be accidental. ‘Deliverance’ is sōtēria (salvation); the NRSV's rendering seems to focus on Paul's vindication and release, but this does not exclude...

Proverbs

Proverbs   Reference library

K. T. Aitken and K. T Aitken

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,819 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...may be connected with a root meaning ‘to be fashioned [in the womb]’ ( cf. Job 10:11; Ps 139:13 ). Hence Wisdom may be consistently representing herself as a child of God. None the less, the emphasis of the verses is not the manner of Wisdom's origins but her priority over the created world. Although v. 22 alludes to the creation narrative in Genesis (‘beginning’), the language of the passage stands closer to hymnic celebrations of creation (cf. e.g. Ps 104:5–13; Job 38:4–18 ). During the creation of the world, Wisdom was ‘there’ ( v. 27 ), ‘beside’...

Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy   Reference library

Christoph Bultmann and Christoph Bultmann

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,352 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...practice, cf. 6:17–18; 7:11 . In general terms, a scribe here relates obedience to God's will to the rewards which an obedient person will gain from it. Within the OT, such a liturgical and doctrinal tradition, which is characteristic of Deuteronomistic writing (cf. also 8:1; Josh 1:7; Jer 7:23 ), is questioned by the book of Job which gives expression to a different religious experience. 6:1 marks the beginning of Moses' teaching Israel the ‘instruction’ ( miṣwâ ) which YHWH commanded him ( 5:31 ). A further superscription in 12:1 introduces the...

The Early Church

The Early Church   Reference library

Henning Graf Reventlow

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,415 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
6

...famous for their faith, their obedience and especially their hospitality. In chapter 16 Jesus Christ himself is introduced as prototype of humility, proved by a long quotation of Isaiah 53: 1–12 , followed by 22: 7ff . Chapters 17–18 mention Elijah and Elisha, Abraham, Job, Moses, David (citing Ps. 51: 3–19 ) as righteous men who remained humble. For 1 Clement, the faithful of the Old Testament are witnesses of a belief to be imitated by the present Christian generation. There is no break in the history of salvation. In chapter 32 the priests and...

The Four Gospels in Synopsis

The Four Gospels in Synopsis   Reference library

Henry Wansbrough

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,113 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by the Lord, which begin with some such double vocative and answer as ‘Abraham, Abraham!’—‘Here I am!’, the call of each pair is modelled on the call of Elisha by Elijah in 1 Kings 19:19–21 : 1. The prophet sees the disciple, son of X. 2. The disciple was working at his trade. 3. The prophet calls him. 4. The disciple leaves his trade and family and follows. The call of the second pair is perhaps marginally more closely modelled on Elisha's call. The second pair leave their father without hesitation, in deliberate contrast to Elisha, who asks permission to...

The Hebrew Bible

The Hebrew Bible   Reference library

Geoffrey Khan

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
13

...Bible codices. The type of codex that has been referred to in the preceding discussion is what can be termed a ‘model’ codex, which was carefully written and accurately preserved the written components of the Tiberian Masoretic tradition. Such manuscripts were generally in the possession of a community, as is shown by their colophons, and were kept in a public place of study and worship for consultation and copying. References to various model codices and their readings are found in the Masoretic notes, for example, Codex Mugah, Codex Hilleli, Codex...

2 Esdras

2 Esdras   Reference library

Peter Hayman and Peter Hayman

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,631 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the limits of human understanding. The point made is very similar to the message Job gets when God appears to him out of the whirlwind ( Job 38–41 ). In the second phase ( vv. 22–43 ) Ezra asserts his right both to ask his questions and to have an answer. Uriel replies that all his problems will be solved, not in this age, but in the age to come. Ezra then asks how long it will be before the future age arrives, and receives a somewhat ambiguous answer, replete with characteristic apocalyptic determinism ( vv. 36–7 ). As this dialogue proceeds Ezra's role...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

Craig Kallendorf

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...understood well enough to allow for emendation. The earliest fragments of Homer that have emerged from the sands of Egypt are not significantly different from the textual tradition that derives from Alexandrian scholarship, suggesting that Zenodotus and his successors did their job well. ( See also 4 , 18 .) 6 Rome 6.1 The physical book Books were present early on in Rome: it is said that in the 6 th century bc Lucius Tarquinius Superbus eventually purchased the magical records in the *Sibylline Books , which were written on linen ( libri lintei ), as...

Psalms

Psalms   Reference library

C. S. Rodd and C. S. Rodd

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
62,266 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...classified as a hymn, but it is unusual in having no initial call to worship God and in containing features, such as the question, ‘What are human beings that you are mindful of them?’ which are akin to wisdom teaching ( cf. Job 7:17; 15:14 , though some see the Job passages as a bitter parody of the psalm, and the book of Job itself has close links with psalmic forms). The first person passages are also unusual in hymns and are somewhat reminiscent of individual laments. It is difficult, however, not to regard it as essentially a hymn that opens with...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

Christopher de Hamel

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of required books. The librarian of a late 11 th -century monastery might want copies of the Bible—including one of the new, vast many-volumed *lectern bibles initially popular in Italy—with the fundamental biblical commentaries, such as Gregory on the books of Ezekiel and Job, Augustine on the Psalms and John, Jerome on the Prophets, Ambrose on Luke, and Bede on Acts. He would want basic theology and philosophy, such as the Consolatio Philosophiae of Boethius and Augustine’s De Civitate Dei , and some works of Carolingian authors such as Claudius of...

The Pastoral Epistles

The Pastoral Epistles   Reference library

Clare Drury and Clare Drury

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
16,198 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...23; 12:18 ). In 1 Tim 4:10 , he is said to have been sent to Dalmatia. Like the setting of 1 and 2 Timothy, this setting is fictitious. ( 1:5–9 ) The situation envisaged at the beginning of the epistle is that Paul has instigated a successful mission in Crete and it is now Titus' job to continue the work, ‘putting it in order’. (Crete is mentioned elsewhere in the NT only in Acts 27 , when Paul did not visit the island intentionally, but his ship was wrecked as it sailed past.) Putting things in order consisted first in appointing elders in every town ( cf....

View: