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jihad

Subject: Religion

A holy war undertaken by Muslims against unbelievers. The name comes from Arabic jihād, literally ‘effort’, expressing, in Muslim thought, struggle on behalf of God and Islam.

Music For Dance

Music For Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
29,477 words

...of Islamic Culture . Dance Research Journal 10.2 (1978): 6–13. Racy, Ali Jihad . Music. In The Genius of Arab Civilization: Source of Renaissance , edited by John R. Hayes . 3d ed. London, 1983: 149–171. Racy, Barbara T. Dance. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Middle East and North Africa , edited by Trevor Mostyn . Cambridge, 1988: 252–253. Wright, Owen , et al. Arab Music. In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . London, 1980. Barbara T. Racy and Ali Jihad Racy Asian Music Within each Asian country there are many different styles of...

Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,776 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of Jihad are struggling against one's desires, the accursed Satan, poverty, illiteracy, disease, and fighting all evil forces in the world. There are many religious texts that refer to these types of Jihad. Among the forms of Jihad is defending life, property or honor. Those who die while engaging in Jihad are considered to be martyrs, as confirmed by Hadith. Jihad is also done to avert aggression on home countries and on all that is held sacred, or in order to face those who try to hinder the march of the call of truth. In Islamic Shari‘ah, Jihad in the...

jihad

jihad   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
47 words

... ( jehad ) Religious obligation imposed upon Muslims through the Koran to spread Islam and protect its followers by waging war on non-believers. There are four ways in which Muslims may fulfil their jihad duty: by the heart, by the tongue, by the hand, and by the...

Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (Arabic, literally ‘effort’) A Muslim holy war against unbelievers. Islamic Jihad See under islam...

Jihād

Jihād   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
97 words

... (Arab., jahada , ‘he made an effort’). More fully, jihād fī sabīl Allāh , ‘striving in the cause of God’. Jihād is usually translated as ‘ holy war ’, but this is misleading. Jihād is divided into two categories, the greater and the lesser: the greater jihād is the warfare in oneself against any evil or temptation. The lesser jihād is the defence of Islam, or of a Muslim country or community, against aggression. It may be a jihād of the pen or of the tongue. If it involves conflict, it is strictly regulated, and can only be...

jihad

jihad   Quick reference

Justa Hopma

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
212 words

... Term to indicate struggle. Linguistically, in Arabic the root letters of the word ‘jihad’ (dʒ-h-d) mean ‘to endeavour, to strive’. The derivative word ‘jihad’ (dʒ-h-a:-d) however, has different layers of meaning, including the term ‘holy war’. The religious meaning of the word ‘jihad’ has been interpreted in different ways, and Islamic scholars have discussed ideas related to ‘greater jihad’ and ‘lesser jihad’. Prophet Mohammed is said to have referred to a person’s inner struggle—which could revolve around vices such as greed or jealousy, for example—as...

jihad

jihad   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...groups have a fondness for styling their movements jihads and their members mujahedin, often with the implication that the object of their jihad is secularized Muslims who are lax in the observance of religious law, to be regarded as not true believers. This is noticeable at the present time in countries like Egypt and Algeria, where such a jihad has assumed a violent form; it was a member of the ‘Islamic Jihad’ movement who in 1981 murdered Pres Sadat . The urging of the Al-Qaeda group to wage global jihad against America and her allies brought the word to...

Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

Michael Gilsenan

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
603 words

... Originally conceived of as the doctrine of struggle against unbelievers for the expansion and protection of the Muslim community, jihad is closely linked with hijra , or emigration from non-Muslim society. According to the doctrine, the sins of a person making jihad are remitted, and death “on the path of God” is martyrdom, which secures immediate entry to paradise. Scholars also have spoken of “the greater jihad” as the internal struggle against one's own sinful tendencies, or as the personal struggle for the good against what is forbidden. Jihad is a...

Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

Michael Gilsenan

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
596 words

... Originally conceived of as the doctrine of struggle against unbelievers for the expansion and protection of the Muslim community, jihad is closely linked with hijra , or emigration from non-Muslim society. According to the doctrine, the sins of a person making jihad are remitted, and death “on the path of God” is martyrdom which secures immediate entry to paradise. Scholars also have spoken of “the greater jihad” as the internal struggle against one's own sinful tendencies, or as the personal struggle for the good against what is forbidden. Jihad is...

Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

Michael Gilsenan

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

... Originally conceived of as the doctrine of struggle against unbelievers for the expansion and protection of the Muslim community, jihad is closely linked with hijra , or emigration from non-Muslim society. According to the doctrine, the sins of a person making jihad are remitted, and death “on the path of God” is martyrdom, which secures immediate entry to paradise. Scholars also have spoken of “the greater jihad” as the internal struggle against one’s own sinful tendencies, or as the personal struggle for the good against what is forbidden. Jihad is a...

Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

The Islamic World: Past and Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,976 words

...heretics, or unbelievers, in order to justify waging jihad against established regimes. Jihad in Practice Throughout Islamic history, Muslims have waged jihad for a number of reasons. In the mid-1900s, many groups formed to promote the overthrow of their own governments, which were considered tyrannical and, therefore, un-Islamic. Jihad against Israel and its supporters has become popular, as well as the overthrow of regimes that some Muslims consider to be secular. Functions of Jihad. The concept of jihad serves several purposes for Muslims. Most importantly,...

jihād

jihād   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
665 words

... The common translation “holy war” does not do justice to the meaning and scope of this concept in the world of Islam . Taken from an Arabic root that refers primarily to the notion of effort and struggle, jihād is the mobilization by man of all his strength in view of an ideal. Thus the expression “ jihād of souls” designates the effort to overcome self in the way of perfection. More commonly, jihād is extended to any struggle in view of the defence and extension of Islam, generally but not exclusively through arms. Over the centuries, jihād was...

Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
575 words

... . Originally the doctrine of struggle against unbelievers for the expansion and protection of the Muslim community, jihad is closely linked with hijra or emigration from non-Muslim society. According to the doctrine, the sins of a person making jihad are remitted and death “on the path of God” is martyrdom which secures immediate entry to paradise. Scholars also have spoken of “the greater jihad” as the internal struggle against one's own sinful tendencies or as the personal struggle for the good against what is forbidden. Jihad is a collective duty, but...

Jihād

Jihād   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,389 words

...Michael . Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practices . Princeton, N.J., 2006. Traces how the notion of jihād was used and changed throughout the history of Islam. Bonney, Richard . Jihad from Quʿrān to Bin Laden . Basingstoke, U.K., 2004. A complete survey of jihād doctrine and jihād struggles throughout Islamic history. Firestone, Reuven . Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam . New York, 1999. A study of the origins of the concept of jihād on the basis of the Koran and hadīth. Gerges, Fawaz A. The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global ....

Jihād

Jihād   Reference library

Rudolph Peters and David Cook

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,608 words

... . Connoting an endeavor toward a praiseworthy aim, the Arabic word jihād bears many shades of meaning in the Islamic context. It may express a struggle against one's evil inclinations or an exertion for the sake of Islam and the ummah (Islamic community), for example, in trying to convert unbelievers or working for the moral betterment of Islamic society (“ jihād of the tongue” and “ jihād of the pen”). In books on Islamic law and commonly in the Qurʾān, the word means an armed struggle against the unbelievers. Sometimes the “ jihād of the sword” is...

Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

Rudolph Peters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,140 words

...of classical jihad doctrine based on an extensive reading of classical sources, but somewhat marred by the author 's apologetic approach. Hūfi, Aḥmad Muḥammad . Al-jihād , pp. 25–31. Cairo: al-Qāhirah, 1970. Contains a short chapter on jihad and women. Khadduri, Majid . War and Peace in the Law of Islam . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1955. Reliable survey of the classical doctrine of jihad. Peters, Rudolph . Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . The Hague and New York: Mouton, 1979. Deals with jihad as a means of...

Jihad

Jihad   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
181 words

...Jihad From the Arabic root meaning “to strive,” “to exert,” “to fight”; exact meaning depends on context. May express a struggle against one's evil inclinations, an exertion to convert unbelievers, or a struggle for the moral betterment of the Islamic community. Today often used without any religious connotation, with a meaning more or less equivalent to the English word crusade (as in “a crusade against drugs”). If used in a religious context, the adjective Islamic or holy is added. Jihad is the only legal warfare in Islam, and it is carefully controlled...

Jihād

Jihād   Reference library

Rudolph Peters and Nesrine Mahmoud Badawi

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Digital Collection

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,455 words

... “ jihād of the sword” is called “the lesser jihād ,” in opposition to the peaceful forms named “the greater jihād ” (based on a Prophetic ḥadīth of contested reliability). Often used today without religious connotation, its meaning is roughly equivalent to the English word crusade (e.g.,“a crusade against drugs”). Either “Islamic” or “holy” is currently added to the word when it is used in a religious context ( al-jihād al-Islāmī or al-jihād...

Jihad, al-

Jihad, al-   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
114 words

...Jihad, al- Jamaat al-Jihad or Islamic Jihad Community. Egyptian Islamic group that assassinated President Anwar Sadat in 1981 . Established in the late 1970s by former members of the group Shabab Muhammad, which attempted a coup in 1974 . Attracted a following in urban areas and in Upper Egypt. Forged an alliance with the Islamic Community (al-Jamaah al-Islamiyyah) in 1980 . Its main ideologue, Muhammad Abd al-Salam Faraj , considered Sadat's regime illegitimate for not implementing Islamic law and jihad as an obligation to establish an Islamic state. By...

Islamic Jihad

Islamic Jihad   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
261 words

...Islamic Jihad (Jihad al-Islami). Also called Organization of Islamic Jihad. Lebanese organization founded by members of Hizb Allah in 1982 and used by Hizb Allah for covert operations. Leadership is shared with Hizb Allah to the extent that some prominent leaders of Hizb Allah have claimed Islamic Jihad activities as their own. High profile and great prestige in challenging the United States and the West due to use of violent means, such as bombings and hostage taking. Goal is the establishment of an Islamic state in Lebanon. Support is limited to a segment...

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