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involuntary

(in biology) Not under the control of the will of an individual. Involuntary responses by muscles, glands, etc., occur automatically when required; many such responses, such as ...

involuntary

involuntary ((in biology))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
47 words

...involuntary (in biology) Not under the control of the will of an individual. Involuntary responses by muscles, glands, etc., occur automatically when required; many such responses, such as gland secretion, heartbeat, and peristalsis, are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and effected by smooth muscle...

involuntary muscle

involuntary muscle   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...involuntary muscle Muscle that is not under conscious control; smooth muscle and cardiac muscle....

involuntary muscle

involuntary muscle   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... muscle Muscle, such as smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, which is not normally under voluntary, conscious control. However, the term is a misnomer because many so-called ‘involuntary’ muscles (e.g. the anal sphincter muscle) can be brought under conscious control by...

involuntary muscle

involuntary muscle   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... muscle Muscle, such as smooth muscle of the gut and cardiac muscle, not usually under voluntary, conscious...

involuntary manslaughter

involuntary manslaughter   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
59 words

... manslaughter An offence of homicide that lacks the malice aforethought required for murder . Compare voluntary manslaughter where the defendant has the malice aforethought for murder but has a partial defence which reduces the offence to manslaughter. The categories of involuntary manslaughter are: unlawful act manslaughter, gross negligence manslaughter, and reckless manslaughter. See also manslaughter...

involuntary muscle

involuntary muscle   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
27 words

... muscle muscle that is not under conscious control, such as the muscle of the gut, stomach, blood vessels, and heart. See also cardiac muscle ; smooth muscle...

involuntary muscle

involuntary muscle n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... muscle n . Any muscle controlling automatic functions and not under voluntary control, usually (with the notable exception of cardiac muscle ) consisting of smooth muscle . See also muscle . Compare voluntary muscle...

involuntary conduct

involuntary conduct   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
103 words

...involuntary conduct Conduct that cannot be controlled because one is suffering from a physical or mental condition or is acting under duress . Involuntary conduct will sometimes give rise to a defence of insanity or non-insane automatism , although it may not be a defence if one is aware of one’s condition or induced it oneself. Sometimes conduct may be regarded as involuntary if one is in control of one’s faculties; for example, when the brakes of a car suddenly fail; this will also afford a defence to a driving offence charge ( Hill v Baxter [ 1958 ]...

involuntary conduct

involuntary conduct   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
103 words

... conduct Conduct that cannot be controlled because one is suffering from a physical or mental condition or is acting under duress . Involuntary conduct will sometimes give rise to a defence of insanity or non-insane automatism , although it may not be a defence if one is aware of one's condition or induced it oneself. Sometimes conduct may be regarded as involuntary if one is in control of one's faculties; for example, when the brakes of a car suddenly fail; this will also afford a defence to a driving offence charge ( Hill v Baxter [ 1958 ] 1 QB...

involuntary smoking

involuntary smoking   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...involuntary smoking A more suitable term than passive smoking to describe inhalation of air contaminated by tobacco smoke. See also current smoker ; every day smoker ; former smoker ; regular smoker ; second-hand smoke ; sidestream smoke ; smoke ; smokeless tobacco ; smoking ; tobacco . ...

involuntary muscle

involuntary muscle n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Nursing (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
31 words

... muscle [in- vol -ŭn-ter-i] n. muscle that is not under conscious control, such as the muscle of the gut, stomach, blood vessels, and heart. See also cardiac muscle , smooth muscle...

involuntary unemployment

involuntary unemployment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
78 words

... unemployment Unemployment in which workers who would be willing to work for lower wages than those in employment are still unable to find work. J M Keynes ( 1883–1946 ) argued that recessions are characterized by involuntary unemployment because firms may be unwilling or unable to cut the wages of workers they employ. Although neoclassical economists have found difficulty accepting this concept, a number of theories have been suggested to explain it ( see human capital...

Involuntary Smoking

Involuntary Smoking   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... Sidestream Smoke and contains higher proportions of carcinogenic substances and other toxic agents than exhaled smoke. The adjective involuntary is preferable to passive , as the latter may imply acquiescence. Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or “environmental” tobacco smoke) is carcinogenic to humans (group 1 of IARC). 13 , 27 , 179 ...

involuntary muscle

involuntary muscle   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
55 words

... muscle One of three types of muscle in the body, so called because, unlike skeletal muscle , it is not under the conscious control of the brain but stimulated by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones . Smooth muscle is the muscle of the alimentary canal , blood vessels, and bladder. Cardiac muscle powers the heart...

involuntary unemployment

involuntary unemployment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
51 words

...involuntary unemployment Unemployment caused by imperfect matching in the labour market between people who want jobs and employers who offer jobs. In other words, an individual willing to take a job at the going wage is unable to do so immediately because of structural problems, or frictions, in the labour market....

involuntary changes

involuntary changes   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Travel and Tourism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
66 words

... changes Changes in an air journey brought about by circumstances outside the passenger’s control, and are usually concerned with airlines’ alterations or cancellations of flights. The passenger does not lose the benefit of the excursion fare applicable had the journey scheduled actually taken place. For air passengers’ rights in the US in the event of a schedule irregularity or force majeure situation see Rule 240...

involuntary patient

involuntary patient   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
67 words

...involuntary patient A person ordered to be detained in a mental health facility without his or her consent under the provisions of the relevant Mental Health Act. Terminology is recognised in all jurisdictions to be an issue but the terminology has not settled into a standard pattern. The Queensland forensic disability regime refers to a forensic disability client . The recent Victorian review used the term ‘compulsory patient’....

voluntary involuntary treatment

voluntary involuntary treatment n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...involuntary treatment n . Another name for a Ulysses contract...

spontaneous (involuntary) abortion

spontaneous (involuntary) abortion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
17 words

...spontaneous (involuntary) abortion The involuntary termination of a pregnancy, often within the first three months of...

involuntary service users

involuntary service users   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... service users People who do not want to have contact with social workers but who are compelled to do so. Although there are cases in which there may be a clear legislative basis to compulsion, such as when someone is ‘sectioned’ under the Mental Health Act ( 1983 ), involuntary service use is much broader than this. For example, although there is no compulsion on parents to be involved with social workers in relation to children who are looked after by a local authority , if they wish to have their children returned to them, they will feel...

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