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Overview

insulin

A hormone produced in the pancreas. It controls the levels of sugar in the blood. Diabetes mellitus is the production of too little or no insulin.

insulin

insulin n.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
90 words

... n. a protein hormone, produced in the pancreas by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans , that is crucial in regulating the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin secretion is stimulated by a high concentration of blood sugar. Lack of this hormone gives rise to diabetes mellitus , in which large amounts of sugar are present in the blood and urine. This condition may be treated successfully by insulin injections ( see insulin analogues ; insulin pen ; isophane insulins ). See also continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
28 words

... A hormone produced in the pancreas. It controls the levels of sugar in the blood. Diabetes mellitus is the production of too little or no insulin...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... A hormone secreted by cells within the islets of Langerhans, in the pancreas. Insulin is released into the bloodstream in response to raised blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, muscles, and fat cells to remove glucose from the blood, and to store it as glycogen and fat in cells. It also promotes the conversion of glucose to fat and stimulates protein synthesis in muscles. Inhibition of insulin production (e.g. by adrenaline or exercise) results in increased blood glucose levels. Although insulin secretion is reduced during exercise, sensitivity...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Medicine and health
Length:
149 words

... A hormone secreted by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to elevated blood glucose levels. Insulin stimulates the liver, muscles, and fat cells to remove glucose from the blood for use or storage; it stimulates liver cells to convert glucose to glycogen; it promotes the conversion of glucose to fats; and promotes glycolysis . Reduced insulin production or a decrease in the insulin-sensitivity of target cells causes blood glucose levels to increase. Insulin secretion is reduced by adrenergic impulses in the...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...insulin Highly conserved peptide hormone (51 aa, 5808 Da) that is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to high blood sugar levels. Insulin has two dissimilar polypeptide chains, A and B, linked by two disulphide bonds, which are derived from proinsulin by the enzymatic removal of the connecting (C) peptide that links the N-terminus of the A chain to the C-terminus of the B chain. C-peptide has no known function once released but has a plasma half-life longer than that of insulin and is a useful measure of the level of pancreatic insulin...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
232 words

..., a hormone that counteracts the effects of insulin. Underproduction of insulin results in the accumulation of large amounts of glucose in the blood ( hyperglycaemia ) and its subsequent excretion in the urine in abnormally high concentrations ( glycosuria ). This condition, known as diabetes mellitus , can be treated successfully. Type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus is caused by failure of target cells to respond to insulin; it can generally be treated by diet alone. Type 1, or insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
85 words

... Hormone secreted by the islets of Langherhans in the pancreas and concerned with the control of blood-glucose levels. Insulin lowers the blood- glucose level by helping the uptake of glucose into cells, and by causing the liver to convert glucose to glycogen. In the absence of insulin, glucose accumulates in the blood and urine, resulting in diabetes . Insulin was isolated in 1921 by Canadian physician Frederick Banting and Canadian physiologist Charles Best . Its structure was discovered in the 1940s by English biochemist Frederick Sanger...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
89 words

... A protein hormone, secreted by the β ‎ cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, that promotes the uptake of glucose by body cells, particularly in the liver and muscles, and thereby controls its concentration in the blood. Insulin was the first protein whose amino-acid sequence was fully determined (in 1955 ). Underproduction of insulin results in the accumulation of large amounts of glucose in the blood and its subsequent excretion in the urine. This condition, known as diabetes mellitus , can be treated successfully by insulin...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
149 words
Illustration(s):
1

... a polypeptide hormone produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans ( q.v. ). Insulin causes a fall in the sugar concentration of the blood, and its deficiency produces the symptoms of diabetes mellitus. Beef insulin was the first protein to have its amino acid sequence determined. This molecule is made up of an A polypeptide (21 amino acids long) and a B peptide (containing 30 amino acids) joined by two disulfide bridges. Sanger’s analysis showed that proteins had chemical structures in the form of specific sequences...

insulin

insulin n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n . A polypeptide hormone that is secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas and that lowers the concentration of glucose in the blood. A deficiency of insulin leads to diabetes mellitus. See also hypoglycaemia . [From Latin insula an island (referring to the islets of Langerhans) + - in ( a ) indicating an organic...

insulin

insulin   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
561 words

...mellitus. Commercial insulin for therapeutic use is extracted mostly from bovine or porcine pancreas; human insulin is now also being made by recombinant DNA technology. The international unit for insulin is defined as the activity contained in 0.04167 mg of the Fourth International Standard for Insulin, Bovine and Porcine, for Bioassay (which is defined as crystalline zinc insulin derived from a mixture of 52% bovine insulin and 48% porcine insulin...

insulin

insulin   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,020 words

...of action required. Insulin was originally extracted on a massive scale from the pancreas of animals (cows or pigs). It can now be obtained by genetic engineering of bacterial cells, causing them to express human insulin. It is noteworthy that insulin was the first protein to be commercially produced by such recombinant technology. Although this allows large scale production and isolation, pig pancreas remains the main source of insulin for human treatment: pig insulin differs from human insulin by only one amino acid. Various insulin formulations may...

insulin

insulin n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Nursing (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
184 words

...insulin [ ins -yoo-lin] n. a protein hormone, produced in the pancreas by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, that is crucial in regulating the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Lack of this hormone gives rise to diabetes mellitus, in which large amounts of sugar are present in the blood and urine. This condition may be treated successfully by subcutaneous injections or continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin. isophane i. insulin combined with protamine, which reduces its rate of absorption from the injection site and hence prolongs...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
65 words

... n. A hormone produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas . It is involved with the regulation of glucose metabolism and acts by facilitating the entry of the glucose present in the bloodstream into the cells. This glucose is then converted into glycogen for storage. A deficiency gives rise to diabetes mellitus which may be treated by insulin...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
51 words

... A protein hormone that is secreted by the beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas . It stimulates the utilization of glucose by the cells and thereby lowers the blood-sugar level. A deficiency of this hormone results in the condition known as diabetes mellitus ....

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...insulin An essential hormone produced by the b islet cells of the pancreas. It is a polypeptide that plays an essential role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism; encourages the uptake, utilization, and storage of lipids as triglycerides; and prevents the breakdown of protein. Insulin is required to treat type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes. ...

insulin

insulin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... Hormone secreted by the β‐islet cells of the pancreas which controls carbohydrate metabolism . Diabetes mellitus is the result of an inadequate supply of insulin or impairment of its function. Since insulin is a protein it would be digested if taken by mouth, so must be injected. Rapid metabolic actions of insulin include: stimulation of glucose transport into muscle and adipose tissue; stimulation of glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle; inhibition of lipolysis and stimulation of fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue; and stimulation of...

insulin shock

insulin shock n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... shock n . A formerly popular method of treating schizophrenia and other disorders by injecting insulin into the bloodstream to induce hypoglycaemia , resulting in coma . Also called insulin coma...

monocomponent insulin

monocomponent insulin   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
42 words

...insulin a commercial preparation of natural insulin that has been highly purified by chromatography and is thus made essentially free of proinsulin, intermediates in the conversion of proinsulin to insulin, and breakdown products of insulin, as well as any unrelated...

insulin resistance

insulin resistance   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... resistance A decreased sensitivity of target cells (e.g. muscle fibres) to insulin . Insulin resistance is one cause of diabetes mellitus (Type II diabetes, which usually occurs in adulthood and develops gradually). Acute bouts of aerobic exercise improves the responsiveness of target cells to insulin, reducing the cells’ requirements and reducing the insulin dosages some diabetics...

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