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information and communication technology

An umbrella term for all of the various media employed in communicating information: for example, in an educational context ICT may include computers, the internet, television broadcasts, ...

information and communication technology

information and communication technology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
44 words

... and communication technology ( ICT ) An umbrella term for all of the various media employed in communicating information : for example, in an educational context ICT may include computers, the internet , television broadcasts , and even printed or handwritten notes. ...

Information and Communication Technology

Information and Communication Technology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,153 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Information and Communication Technology . Since the Upper Paleolithic period (35,000–10,000 years ago), humans have developed ever more elaborate and effective means to acquire, process, store, and transmit information. By technology, we mean not only physical artifacts but also the skills and organizations that contribute to this development. Over time, the technologies of communication and information have increased in speed, in reliability, and in their ability to carry different forms of information, such as words, music, or pictures. They have not...

Critical Discourse Analysis and Information and Communication Technology in Education

Critical Discourse Analysis and Information and Communication Technology in Education   Reference library

Cheryl Brown

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
7,521 words

...of Critical Discourse Analysis as an Approach to Information and Communication Technologies in Education Avgerou and Madon ( 2004 ) note that it is necessary to understand new technologies (i.e., the Internet and the mobile phone), which can only be achieved by taking into account their symbolic meaning in everyday life. One of the ways of examining meaning is to look at identity, as identity also acts as a source of meaning and experience for people ( Koc, 2006 ). It is not just about how the technology is adopted, but also about the way it is integrated...

information and communication technology

information and communication technology  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An umbrella term for all of the various media employed in communicating information: for example, in an educational context ICT may include computers, the internet, television broadcasts, and even ...
information and communication technologies

information and communication technologies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
111 words

... and communication technologies ( ICT ) The suite of systems, devices, and protocols concerned with the production, storage, transmission, and manipulation of data, normally in a digital form. ICT refers to the convergence of computer networks, telephone networks, and other audio-visual networks made possible by the digitalization of information since the 1990s ( see Internet ). In general usage, the term ICT has replaced IT, or Information Technology, the sector concerned with computers and computer systems. If there is a difference, it is that...

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) (China and India: Assessing Sustainability)   Reference library

Ashok JHUNJHUNWALA and Janani RANGARAJAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
7,259 words

... Information and Communication Technologies ( ICT ) (China and India: Assessing Sustainability) Late in the twentieth century, information and communication technologies ( ICT ) emerged as a major force in the world, changing the way people live, work, communicate, entertain, and govern. South and East Asia were not left untouched, and the region has adopted ICT to drive rapid economic growth and societal changes, leaving behind the legacy of centuries of colonialism. India and China in particular have effectively used ICT as an instrument to propel...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,019 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...experience of a computer: windows, black text on white background, files, folders, and a desktop. At the same time, Andries van Dam was working with colleagues at the Brown University Center for Computer & Information Sciences, developing the Hypertext Editing System, unveiled in April 1969 . This spawned a variety of hypermedia and hypertext experiments during the 1970s and 1980s . Between 1978 and 1980 , students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology produced the first significant hypermedia application, the Aspen Moviemap, which used a...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Architectural Colour in British Interiors 1615–1840 and Interior House‐Painting Colours and Technology 1615–1840 . The invention of photography in the 19th century provided a new medium for documenting changing tastes in interiors, and the work of H. Bedford Lemere is celebrated by Nicholas Cooper , The Opulent Eye: Late Victorian and Edwardian Taste in Interior Design ( 1976 ). John Fowler was perhaps the most influential designer in the evolution of country house taste in the 20th century, and his contribution is fully acknowledged by John...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Taking advantage of the new technology of *stereotyping , the Philadelphia society produced bibles in the tens of thousands; a network of auxiliary societies distributed them across Pennsylvania. The national evangelical publishing concerns founded over the next two decades—the *American Bible Society ( 1815 ), the *American Sunday-School Union ( 1824 ), and the *American Tract Society ( 1825 )—employed similar methods. These religious publishers stood at the forefront of technological change and mass communication in the US. To produce their huge...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...while others accommodated and collaborated with the Japanese. Writing and publishing in the Korean language was constrained, as the colonizers attempted to shape Korean social and cultural identity in ways that supported Japanese imperialist ambitions. For a time, the future of Korean as a medium of formal communication and education was uncertain. It was against this background of struggle and contested nationhood that modern Korea’s influential newspaper and book publishing companies were founded. Writers, academic societies, and newspapers all had to...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the Hindu and Muslim MS traditions took somewhat different routes, they were both instrumental in creating highly evolved communication networks. Access to the production and ownership of MSS was restricted in the Hindu and Buddhist traditions, yet the rise of the vernaculars in the second millennium ce saw a much wider diffusion of the culture of writing and reading. The examples of the great Indian epics * Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa demonstrate how new interpretive communities were formed once the Sanskrit hegemony was challenged, and created a kind...

1 Writing Systems

1 Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
7

...would include, in addition to Ice Age cave symbols and Middle Eastern clay ‘tokens’, the Pictish symbol stones and tallies such as the fascinating knotted Inca quipus, but also contemporary sign systems such as international transportation symbols, highway code signs, computer icons, and mathematical and musical notation. None of these ancient or modern systems is capable of expressing ‘any and all thought’, but each is good at specialized communication (DeFrancis, Visible Speech , 4). 2 Development and diffusion of writing systems To express the full range...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...the Commissie Collectieve Propaganda van het Nederlandse Boek (CPNB), which has both a commercial and cultural purpose and is responsible for the Boekenweek. In 1960 the Stichting Speurwerk betreffende het Boek was founded, which gathers much-needed statistical information. In libraries in Belgium and The Netherlands, the postwar trend has been toward professionalization, increases in scale, and automation through the integration of new information technologies. More than its counterpart in Brussels, the *Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB) in The Hague has...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of certain ideas and concepts. The media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi, at the time of writing Italy’s third-time prime minister, is also the country’s largest publisher by virtue of his ownership of the Mondadori group. Lastly, the economic ‘miracle’ of the 1960s made Italy the world leader in the field of colour printing, both in product packaging (e.g. Barilla pasta) and in advertising material for the luxury goods industry, which exports worldwide such Italian brands as Versace, Ferragamo, and Ferrari. The availability of this technology has an obvious...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...huge output of devotional, theological, legal, historical, scientific, and other ‘secular’ knowledge, required more functional styles of script, designed primarily for legibility and communication. Most Arabic MS books are therefore written in smaller and simpler cursive styles, notably naskh (which later became the basis of Arabic *typography ) and, in the Muslim West, various forms of Maghribī . Yet, even in workaday MSS, aesthetic considerations were rarely abandoned altogether, and writing still had sacred connotations, especially since the name of God...

domestic communication technologies

domestic communication technologies  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. Those information and communication technologies found in the home.2. The domestic environment as a communication context, with its own media ecology, power relations, domestic politics, ...
Information Technology and Peace Activism

Information Technology and Peace Activism  

Since the late 1980s, the Internet has played an ever-increasing role in political activity. Protesters use the Internet in two main ways: as a tool for information and communication and as a medium ...
informatization

informatization  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
See also information economy; information society; knowledge economy; knowledge industries; post-industrialism.1. Broadly, an increasing flow or diffusion of information throughout a social system.2. ...
communication technologies

communication technologies  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. Equipment (and associated techniques) directly used to enable interpersonal communication (both synchronous and asynchronous); and/or the mass media. This is not quite synonymous with ‘the means ...

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